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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 30, 2023
Or
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                                    to                                   
Commission file number: 000-50307
FormFactor, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware13-3711155
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
7005 Southfront Road, Livermore, California
94551
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(925290-4000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.001 par valueFORMNasdaq Global Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐    No ☒
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐    No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒    No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of the Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒    No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepares or issued its audit report.  
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.     
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No ☒
Aggregate market value of registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based upon the closing price of a share of the registrant's common stock on July 1, 2023 (the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second quarter) as reported by Nasdaq Global Market on that date: $1,891.7 million.
The number of shares of the registrant's common stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding as of February 16, 2024 was 77,598,433 shares.



DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's definitive Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed within 120 days of the end of the registrant's fiscal year ended December 30, 2023, are incorporated by reference in Part III hereof. Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the Proxy Statement is not deemed to be filed as a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.



FORMFACTOR, INC.
Form 10-K for the Fiscal Year Ended December 30, 2023
Index
  Page
Part I
Part II
Part III
Part IV











______________
Throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we refer to FormFactor, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries as “the Company,” “FormFactor,” “we,” “us,” and “our.” Our fiscal year ends on the last Saturday in December. Our last three fiscal years ended on December 30, 2023, December 31, 2022 and December 25, 2021.
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NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the Securities Act of 1933, which are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties. The forward-looking statements include statements concerning, among other things, our business strategy (including the influence of anticipated trends and developments in our business and the markets in which we operate), financial results, operating results, revenues, gross margins, liquidity, operating expenses, products, projected costs and capital expenditures, research and development programs, sales and marketing initiatives, competition, and the impact of accounting standards. In some cases, you can identify these statements by our use of forward-looking words, such as “may,” “might,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “intend” and “continue,” the negative or plural of these words and other comparable terminology. Forward-looking statements are based on information available to us as of the filing date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and our current expectations about future events, which are inherently subject to change and involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We have no obligation to update any of these statements, and we assume no obligation to do so. Actual events or results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by these statements due to various factors, including but not limited to the matters discussed below in the section entitled “Item 1A: Risk Factors,” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our operating results have fluctuated in the past and are likely to continue to fluctuate. You should not rely on period-to-period comparisons of our financial results as indicators of our future performance. Some of the important factors that could cause our revenues, operating results and outlook to fluctuate from period to period include:

customer demand for and adoption of our products;
market and competitive conditions in our industry, the semiconductor industry and the economy as a whole;
the timing and success of new technologies and product introductions by our competitors and by us;
our ability to work efficiently with our customers on their qualification of our new technologies and products;
our ability to deliver reliable, cost-effective products that meet our customers’ testing requirements in a timely manner;
our ability to transition to new product architectures to solve next-generation semiconductor test and measurement challenges, and to bring new products into volume production on time and at acceptable yields and cost;
our ability to implement measures for enabling efficiencies and supporting growth in our design, applications, manufacturing and other operational activities;
changes in trade, tariff or export regulations in the markets where we produce or sell our products;
the reduction, rescheduling or cancellation of orders by our customers;
our ability to collect accounts receivable owed by our customers;
our product and customer sales mix and geographical sales mix;
reductions in the prices or the profitability of our products due to competitive pressures or other factors;
the timely availability or the cost of labor, components and materials utilized in our products;
our ability to efficiently optimize manufacturing capacity and production yields as necessary to meet customer demand and ramp variable production volumes at our manufacturing facilities;
our ability to protect our intellectual property against infringement and continue our investment in research and development and design activities;
the timing of and return on our investments in research and development;
any disruption in the operation of our manufacturing facilities;
risks to the Company’s realization of benefits from acquisitions and investments in capacity and data systems; and
factors impacting political and global economic stability, including natural disasters, pandemics, military conflicts, climate change, and other factors acting alone or in combination.

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PART I

Item 1:    Business

General
FormFactor, Inc. is a leading provider of essential test and measurement technologies along the full semiconductor product lifecycle - from characterization, modeling, reliability, and design de-bug, to qualification and production test. We provide a broad range of high-performance probe cards, analytical probes, probe stations, metrology systems, thermal systems, and cryogenic systems to both semiconductor companies and scientific institutions. Our products provide electrical information from a variety of semiconductor and electro-optical devices and integrated circuits from early research, through development, to high-volume production. Customers use our products and services to accelerate profitability by optimizing device performance, reducing scrap, and improving yields.

Founded in 1993, we introduced our first product in 1995. From time to time, we have acquired businesses to help transform our business into a semiconductor test and measurement market leader with greater scale, diversification, breadth and market opportunities from Lab to Fab. We continue to evaluate opportunities to acquire businesses and technologies to further these goals.

As of December 30, 2023, we operate in two reportable segments consisting of the Probe Cards segment and the Systems segment. Sales of our probe cards and analytical probes are included in the Probe Cards segment, while sales of our probe stations, metrology systems, thermal systems and cryogenic systems are included in the Systems segment.

Products
We design, manufacture and sell multiple product lines, including probe cards, analytical probes, probe stations, metrology systems, thermal systems, cryogenic systems, and related services. On November 1, 2023, we completed the sale of our FRT Metrology business.

Probe Cards. Our probe cards utilize a variety of technologies and product architectures, including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. We use advanced design and automation technologies to enable rapid and cost-effective manufacturing of resilient composite contact elements with characteristic length scales of a few microns. These contact elements are designed to provide a specific range of forces on and across a chip’s bond pad, solder bump, micro-bump, through-silicon-via (TSV), or copper pillar, during the test process, and maintain their shape and position over a range of compression levels. In addition, while maintaining these mechanical characteristics, the contact elements must achieve reliable and high-fidelity electrical contact through wafer surfaces that are generally oxidized or otherwise contaminated, and must maintain these attributes over hundreds of thousands, and even millions, of compression cycles. Our range of capabilities enable us to rapidly produce customer-design specific probe cards that deliver leading precision, quality, reliability, and electro-mechanical performance.

Our probe cards are customized for our customers’ unique wafer and chip designs by modifying and adapting our standard product architectures to meet an individual customer’s specific wafer and chip layouts and electrical test requirements. We offer probe cards to test a variety of semiconductor device types, including systems on a chip (SoCs), mobile application processors, microprocessors, quantum processors, microcontrollers, graphic processors, radio frequency, analog, mixed signal, image sensors, electro-optical, DRAM memory (including high-bandwidth memory, or “HBM”), NAND flash memory, NOR flash memory, and quantum computer processor devices.

For many advanced applications, our products must maintain tens of thousands of simultaneous high-fidelity low-impedance electrical contacts with the corresponding chip contacts on the wafer. Our present technologies enable probe cards with over 100,000 contact elements with spacings as small as 40 microns over geometries as large as an entire 300mm wafer. In addition, for high signal-fidelity devices such as wireless radio frequency transceivers and automotive radar chips, our probe card technologies are capable of testing at millimeter-wave frequencies range, currently up to 81 GHz.

We have invested, and intend to continue to invest, considerable resources in proprietary probe card design tools and processes. These tools and processes are intended to enable the rapid and accurate customization of products required to meet customer requirements, including automated routing and trace length adjustment within our probe cards, to rapidly design complex structures.

In addition, some of our customers test certain chips over a large range of operating temperatures, such as for automotive and cryogenic applications. We design probe cards to provide for a precise match with the thermal expansion characteristics of the wafer under test across the range of test operating temperatures. For many of our products, our customers can use the same
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probe card for both low and high temperature testing. We also design probe cards for customers that require extreme positional accuracy at a specific temperature.

Through ongoing investments in both our technology and operations, we continue to innovate and improve so that our products will meet customers’ future technical roadmap performance, quality, and commercial requirements. We also focus on leveraging these ongoing investments across all advanced probe card markets to realize synergies and economies of scale to benefit our competitiveness, time-to-market and overall profitability.

Analytical Probes. We offer over 50 different analytical probe models for engineering and production testing. Analytical probes are used for a diverse set of applications, including device characterization, electrical simulation model development, failure analysis, and prototype design debugging. Our customers for analytical probes include universities, research institutions, semiconductor integrated device manufacturers, semiconductor foundries, and fabless semiconductor companies. We continue to add new models of analytical probes that address measurements with higher complexities and at higher frequencies.

Probe Stations. Probe stations, also referred to as probe systems, are a critical tool for the development of new generations of semiconductor and electro-optical processes and designs. Probe stations are highly configurable for the required measurements, the size and type of wafer under test, the characteristics of the device design to be tested, and the temperatures at which testing is to be performed. Process development and design complexities have continually increased with each new generation of semiconductor technology to accommodate smaller design geometries, complex 3-D architectures, new materials and more layers. Probe systems are a fundamental tool for characterizing and verifying electrical performance and reliability to enable new semiconductor technologies. We design our probe systems for semiconductor design engineers to capture and analyze more accurate data in a shorter amount of time and to be able to control and manage testing at temperatures from near absolute zero to hundreds of degrees centigrade.

We build upon our probe stations to create integrated measurement systems that provide complete solutions for our customers’ complex measurement requirements. These systems include test instrumentation, probe, cabling configurations, and software to enable fast, accurate, on-wafer data collection for complex application and measurement needs. We offer pre-configured and customized measurement systems for production testing, power device characterization, vacuum probing, cryogenic probing, high-pressure probing, photonics testing, and a variety of other specific applications.

Metrology Systems. Until the sale of FRT in November 2023, we offered surface metrology systems for various applications including the development, production and quality control of semiconductor products. With resolution down to nanometer scales, these systems measured topography, structure, step height, roughness, wear, thickness variation, film thickness and other parameters. The modular architecture of the systems allowed for the sensor configuration to be customized for the application while leveraging a common platform. These systems integrated hybrid metrology capabilities and proprietary software to enable non-destructive and rapid measurement of multiple features and parameters simultaneously, which had multiple applications but is particularly useful in the growing space of advanced packaging, Silicon Carbide (SiC) power, Silicon Photonics, and MEMS applications.

Thermal Subsystems. Our thermal subsystems include thermal chucks and other test systems used in probe stations and other applications where precise temperature management is required. Thermal chuck systems enable the testing of devices at precise temperatures or across a range of temperatures. These systems are both marketed externally and allow for vertical integration with our probe stations.

Cryogenic Systems. Our cryogenic systems include the manufacture of precision cryogenic instruments and semiconductor test and measurement systems. These include advanced cryogenic probe systems to test complete wafers or singulated die, as well as Dilution Refrigerator (DR) and Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) cryostats used in various applications at temperatures close to absolute zero, including quantum and superconducting computing applications, astronomy, and other situations where cryogenic temperature management is required. These systems are marketed externally and also allow for vertical integration with our existing cryogenic wafer and chip probe stations and cryogenic probes.

Services and Support. In addition to routine installation services at the time of sale, we offer services to enable our customers to maintain and more effectively utilize our products and to enhance our customer relationships. Our applications engineers assist our customers in test methodologies to make advanced measurements during process and product development, and during mass production, along with offering traditional maintenance services.

Customers
Our customers include companies, universities and institutions that design or make semiconductor and semiconductor related products in the foundry & logic, DRAM, flash, display, sensor and quantum computer markets. Our customers use our products
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to test nearly all semiconductor device types, including SoCs, mobile application processors, microprocessors, quantum processors, microcontrollers, graphic processors, radio frequency, analog, mixed signal, image sensors, electro-optical, DRAM memory (including HBM), NAND flash memory, NOR flash memory, and quantum computer processor devices.

Fabless semiconductor suppliers do not manufacture their own semiconductors, but they purchase our analytical probes, probe stations, and other System segment products for research and development, and device characterization. They also purchase, or direct their foundries or wafer test facilities to purchase, our probe cards to test wafers manufactured for them.

We believe our customers consider timely service and support to be an important aspect of our relationship as our products are critical elements of high-volume manufacturing and design-specific product ramps. Our probe stations are installed at customer sites either by us, our manufacturers’ representatives or our distributors, depending on the complexity of the installation and the customer’s geographic location. We assist our customers in the selection, integration and use of our products through application engineering support. We also provide worldwide on-site probe card maintenance and service training, seminars and telephone support. In certain geographic regions, and for selected products, our manufacturers’ representatives and distributors provide additional service and support.

Information concerning revenue concentration by customer appears under Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following customers represented 10% or more of our quarterly revenues for the quarters indicated:
Fiscal Quarters Ended
Dec. 30,
2023
Sep. 30,
2023
Jul. 1,
2023
Apr. 1,
2023
Dec. 31,
2022
Sep. 24,
2022
Jun. 25,
2022
Mar. 26,
2022
Intel Corporation16.7 %17.1 %14.2 %20.0 %16.5 %17.0 %20.9 %20.8 %
SK hynix Inc.10.7 %****10.7 %**
Samsung Electronics Co., LTD.*11.2 %******
Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., LTD.*******10.7 %
27.4 %28.3 %14.2 %20.0 %16.5 %27.7 %20.9 %31.5 %
* Less than 10% of revenues.

Manufacturing
Our probe cards are designed for each of our customers' unique designs, by modifying and adapting our product architectures to meet an individual customer’s chip layout and test requirements. Our proprietary manufacturing processes for our probe cards include a complex interconnection system-level design process; a front-end process, which may include wire bonding, photolithography, plating and metallurgical processes, dry and electro-deposition, and pick and place assembly; and a back-end process, which includes general assembly and test. Critical steps in our manufacturing process are performed in a variety of clean room environments as stringent as a Class 100, depending on the requirements of the specific manufacturing processes.

Our probe stations are designed to provide highly accurate electrical and optical measurements enabled by precise and reliable mechanical components and assemblies. We prototype and perform robust testing of our product designs and components to ensure high electrical signal integrity, mechanical accuracy and safety. We also monitor our product quality throughout the various stages of our manufacturing processes using a variety of process control methods and tests.

We depend on suppliers for materials and some critical components of our manufacturing processes, including ceramic and organic substrates and complex printed circuit boards. We also rely on suppliers to provide certain contact elements and interconnects that are incorporated into our products. Some of these components and materials are supplied by a single vendor, and some are subject to certain minimum order quantities. Generally, we rely on purchase orders rather than long-term contracts with our suppliers, which subjects us to risks, including price increases, manufacturing capacity constraints and component shortages. We regularly assess and evaluate alternative sources of supply for all components and materials.

Our primary manufacturing facilities are located in Livermore, Carlsbad, and Baldwin Park, California; Beaverton, Oregon; Boulder, Colorado; and Woburn, Massachusetts, all in the United States; and in Thiendorf and Munich, Germany. We also have smaller manufacturing operations in Suzhou, China and Yokohama, Japan.

We maintain repair and service capabilities in Livermore, Carlsbad, and Baldwin Park, California and Beaverton, Oregon, United States; Thiendorf, Dresden and Munich Germany; Bundang, South Korea; Yokohama and Hiroshima, Japan; Suzhou and Shanghai, China; Hsinchu, Taiwan; and Singapore.

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In February 2024, we entered into an agreement with Grand Junction Semiconductor Pte. Ltd. to divest our operations in China and establish an exclusive distribution and partnership agreement to continue sales and support of our products in the region (the “China Transaction”). The China Transaction is expected to close in the first half of 2024.

Research, Development and Engineering
The semiconductor industry is subject to rapid technological change with a continuous stream of new product introductions and technology enhancements. We believe that our continued commitment to research and development and our timely introduction of new and enhanced products and technologies are integral to maintaining and enhancing our competitive position. We allocate significant resources to these efforts and prioritize those resources to prepare for our customers’ next generation electrical test and measurement challenges. We also increasingly seek to deploy our resources to solve fundamental challenges that are both common to, and provide competitive advantage across, our probe card and system product offerings and roadmaps.

Sales and Marketing
We sell our products worldwide through a global direct sales force and through a combination of manufacturers’ representatives and distributors.

Our direct sales and marketing staff is located in the United States, China (pending the close of the China Transaction), France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. They work closely with customers in the effort to understand their businesses, anticipate trends and define products that will provide significant technical and economic advantages to our customers. We employ a highly skilled team of application and customer support engineers that support our customers as they integrate our products into their research, development and manufacturing processes. Through these customer relationships, we seek to develop a strong understanding of customer and product requirements to align our capabilities with our customers’ roadmaps and production ramps.

We also have a network of representatives and distributors across the globe to broaden our reach. We engage sales representatives to act as independent third parties that agree to promote our products, at our prices and on terms set by us, in return for a commission based on sales. We typically use sales representatives in areas that we believe require greater levels of customer support than we can deliver from our own sales offices and where local language capabilities can offer an advantage. Our distributors purchase our products and resell them at prices and upon terms set by the particular distributor. We typically use distributors in particular geographies due to local regulations or business customs.

Governmental Regulations
We are subject to international, federal, state and local regulations that are customary to businesses in our industry. These regulations relate to, among other things, environmental matters, anti-corruption, marketing, fraud and abuse, trade, employment, and privacy.

Environmental Matters
We are subject to U.S. federal, state, local, and foreign governmental laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment, including those governing the discharge of pollutants into the air and water, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, the clean-up of contaminated sites and the maintenance of a safe workplace. We believe that we comply in all material respects with the environmental laws and regulations that apply to us as of December 30, 2023. There are no matters pending that we currently believe are reasonably possible of having a material impact to our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. In the future, we may receive notices of violations of environmental regulations, or otherwise learn of such violations. Environmental contamination or violations may negatively impact our business.

Import and Export Control
We manufacture, market and sell our products both inside and outside the U.S. Certain products are subject to export control regulations. Failure to comply with these laws could result in sanctions by the U.S. or other respective governments, including substantial monetary penalties, denial of import, export or other privileges, and debarment from government contracts. Approximately 14% of our fiscal 2023 revenue and 22% of our fiscal 2022 revenue was derived from sales to customers in China, which were subject to the expanded export license requirements imposed by the United States government. The revenue derived from large multinational customers with a presence in China represented 5% of fiscal 2023 revenue, with the remaining 9% representing regional customers in China. As noted above, we have entered into an agreement to divest our China operations, which is expected to close in the first half of 2024.

Competition
The markets for our products are highly competitive, and we anticipate that these markets will continually evolve and be subject to rapid technological change. Our current and potential competitors are as below:
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Probe Cards. The probe card market is comprised of many domestic and foreign companies, and has historically been fragmented with many local suppliers servicing individual customers in often differentiated applications. Our primary competitors are AMST Co., Ltd., Chungwa Precision Technology, Feinmetall GmbH, Japan Electronic Materials Corporation, Korea Instrument Co., Ltd., M2N Co., Ltd., Microfriend Inc., Micronics Japan Co., Ltd., MPI Corporation, Micro Square Technology Inc., NHK Spring Co., Ltd., Soulbrain Engineering, Nidec SV TCL, Synergie CAD, TechnoProbe S.p.A, TSE Co., Ltd., WinWay Technology Co., Ltd., WILL-Technology Co., Ltd., and Yokowo, among others.

Probe card vendors such as Japan Electronic Materials Corporation, Micronics Japan Co., and TechnoProbe offer probe cards built using similar types of MEMS technology as we do. The high capital investment and other costs associated with the development of MEMS probe cards and the time and high cost of the customer evaluation process represent significant barriers to entry for this type of technology.

We believe that the primary competitive factors in the production probe card market depend upon the type of integrated circuit being tested, and include customer service, knowledge of measurement techniques, delivery time, price, probe card lifetime, chip damage prevention, probe tip touch-down accuracy, electrical signal speed and current carrying capability of the probe card, number of chips contacted in parallel, number of probe tips and their layout and pitch, signal integrity, and frequency and effectiveness of any required cleaning. As a result of our relative strengths in these areas, we believe that we compete favorably in the advanced probe card market, and in probe cards for parallel testing of chips with densely-packed bond pads, bumps or pillars, and in high signal integrity testing of wireless radio frequency devices that operate up to millimeter-wave frequencies, a capability needed for components used in 5G applications.

Analytical Probes. Our primary competitors in the analytical probe market are GGB Industries Inc. and MPI Corporation. We believe that the primary competitive factors in this market are breadth of probe types, probe frequency and electrical signal integrity, contact integrity and the related cleaning required, knowledge of measurement techniques, calibration support, delivery time and price. We believe that we compete favorably with respect to these factors.

Probe Stations. Our primary competitors in the probe station market are HiSOL, Inc., LTD/Accretech, The Micromanipulator Company Inc., MPI Corporation, Semiprobe, Signatone Corporation, Tokyo Electron (“TEL”), Tokyo Seimitsu Co., and Wentworth Laboratories Inc. We believe that the primary competitive factors in the probe station market are measurement accuracy and versatility at temperature, including cryogenic temperatures, measurement speed, automation features, knowledge of measurement techniques, completeness of the measurement solutions, delivery time and price. We believe that we compete favorably with respect to these factors.

Thermal Subsystems. In the market for thermal subsystems, we compete principally against ERS Electronic GmbH, Espec Corp, and Temptronic Corporation. In addition, many of our probe station competitors develop and produce their own thermal subsystems for use in their products. We believe the primary competitive factors in this market are thermal performance, reliability, flexibility and completeness of product offerings. We believe that we compete favorably with respect to these factors.

Cryogenic Systems. In the market for cryogenic systems, we compete principally against Bluefors Oy, Entropy, Leiden Cryogenics B.V., Montana Instruments, Nagase Techno-Engineering Co., Oxford Instruments, and STAR Cryoelectronics. We believe the primary competitive factors in this market are cryogenic performance, reliability, throughput and application expertise. We believe we compete favorably with respect to these factors.

Some of our competitors are also suppliers of other types of test and measurement equipment or other semiconductor equipment and may have greater financial and other resources than we do. Our competitors may enhance their current products and may introduce new products that will be competitive with ours. New alternatives to our products may also be introduced, by our current competitors or others, which may reduce the value of one or more of our products.

Semiconductor manufacturers may implement chip designs that include capabilities or use other methodologies that increase test throughput and reduce test content. This may reduce or eliminate some or all of our current products’ advantages. Semiconductor manufacturers may also increase their use of test strategies that include low performance semiconductor testers, less complex probe cards, or test procedures that do not involve our products. Our ability to compete favorably may also be adversely affected by the long-standing relationships between our competitors and certain semiconductor manufacturers.

Intellectual Property
Our success depends in part upon our ability to continue to innovate and invest in research and development to meet the test and measurement requirements of our customers, to maintain and protect our proprietary technology, and to conduct our business
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without infringing on the proprietary rights of others. We rely on a combination of patents, trade secrets, trademarks and contractual restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. We have filed actions to enforce those rights against third parties in the past, and may pursue such actions in the future.

We have generated, and continue to generate and maintain, patents and other intellectual property rights covering innovations that are intended to create a competitive advantage, and to support the protection of our investments in research and development. We believe that we possess one of the most substantial patent portfolios relevant to our products.

Although we believe that our patents and other intellectual property rights have significant value for each of our segments, we do not believe that maintaining or growing our business is materially dependent on any single patent. Due to the rapid pace of innovation within the markets that we serve, it is possible that our protection through patents may be less important than factors such as our technological expertise, continuing development of new products and technologies, protection of trade secrets, market penetration, customer relationships, and our ability to provide comprehensive support and service to customers worldwide.

No assurance can be given that patents will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, or that the rights granted thereunder will provide us with a sustained competitive advantage. In addition, there can be no assurance that we will be able to protect our technology, or that competitors will not be able to independently develop similar or functionally competitive technologies, design around our patents, or attempt to manufacture and sell infringing products in countries that do not strongly enforce intellectual property rights.

Our People
We believe that each employee contributes to our culture of integrity, innovation, and teamwork. We reinforce this culture through our people development programs that drive talent acquisition, retention and employee engagement. These programs include carefully designed compensation programs across all levels, a variety of training, diversity and inclusion programs, and other initiatives.

Our compensation programs help attract and retain key talent and are designed for our employees to share in our company’s success. These programs focus on compensation that we believe is market-competitive, reflects company performance, and aligns with drivers of stockholder value with differentiation based on performance, skills, geographic location, and tenure. We use information from outside compensation and benefits consulting firms to evaluate the competitiveness of the compensation we offer to employees in specific job types, and to evaluate the structure of our compensation programs, as a benchmark against our peers within the industry.

We offer a variety of benefits such as health insurance, paid and unpaid leaves, retirement, and life and disability/accident coverage as applicable to their geographic location. We also offer a variety of other benefits which allow employees to select the options which meet their needs such as for wellness, insurance and professional services.

Our training initiatives promote the continuous improvement of our workforce to keep pace with an increasingly complex business and industry, and are designed to foster skills development and compliance and promote our company values. In addition to formal training, the capabilities of our workforce are intended to grow through structured feedback, mentorship, team building, career progression, tuition assistance, and a culture of transparency.

We leverage both formal and informal programs to identify, reward, and retain top talent. On an annual basis, we conduct a talent review process with our Chief Executive Officer and leaders of our business units and functions that is focused on performance, potential, diversity, and succession for critical roles.

Our commitment to diversity and inclusion is a significant part of our people development programs. We believe that the recruitment, retention and promotion of a balanced workforce is an important driver of company performance. We support these values through sponsored events, networking groups, and management objectives. As an equal opportunity employer, we develop and implement an annual and targeted affirmative action plan.

We also inspire employee engagement through our commitment to corporate social responsibility, including in defined focus areas of sustainable technology, health and safety, labor and human rights, energy and climate change, supply chain responsibility, and waste and chemical management.

Our workplace health and safety programs include policies, procedures, training programs, and self-audits. Nearly all of our manufacturing employees are located in California, Oregon and Germany, where workplace safety and labor regulations support maintaining high standards of employee protection.
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For our manufacturing activities, the speed at which we can recruit, train and deploy quality new and replacement personnel is an important part of our ability to ramp up and maintain our production capacity. We rely upon both employees and resources from staffing firms to meet our needs for direct labor. Speed, accuracy and agility in this process is important to our business. Similarly, it is important to our business that we are able to regularly recruit and train quality new and replacement design and engineering staff. For example, our probe card products require that we develop custom designs for our customers’ new product designs. We face strong competition from companies in a variety of technology fields to secure the engineering talent that we require. In addition, restrictions on immigration and skilled-worker visas in a variety of jurisdictions impacts the ease and flexibility with which we can develop these resources.

As of December 30, 2023, we had 2,115 regular full-time employees, including 1,225 in operations, 425 in research and development, 276 in sales and marketing and 189 in general and administrative functions. By region, 1,469 of our employees were in North America, 391 in Asia, and 255 in Europe. As of December 30, 2023, our Probe Cards Segment had 1,565 regular full-time employees, our Systems Segment had 362 regular full-time employees, plus we had 188 regular full-time employees in corporate functions.

Available Information
We maintain a website at http://www.formfactor.com. We make available free of charge on our website our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the United State Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. The reference to our website does not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained at the site.

Item 1A:    Risk Factors

In addition to the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, you should carefully consider the risk factors discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in evaluating FormFactor and our business. If any of the identified risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment in our common stock. The risks and uncertainties described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are not the only ones we face. Additional risks that we currently do not know about, or that we do not consider sufficiently important to describe here in accordance with applicable regulations, may also impair our business operations or the trading price of our common stock.

Risks Relating to our Operations and the Nature of Our Business

The markets in which we participate are competitive, and if we do not compete effectively, our operating results could be harmed.
We have experienced increased competition in the markets in which we operate, and we expect competition to intensify in the future. Increased competition has resulted in, and in the future may result in, price reductions, reduced gross margins or loss of market share.

Existing competitors might introduce new competitive products for the same markets that our products currently serve. These products may have better performance, lower prices, shorter delivery times or broader acceptance than our products.

In addition, new competitors, including test equipment manufacturers, may offer comparable or new technologies that reduce the value of our products. Also, semiconductor manufacturers may implement chip designs or methodologies that increase test throughput, reduce test content, or change their test procedures, thereby eliminating some or all of our current product advantages.

Our current or potential competitors may have larger customer bases, more established customer relationships or greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than we do. As a result, they might be able to respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements, devote greater resources to the development, promotion, sale and support of their products, and reduce prices to increase market share.

If we do not innovate and keep pace with technological developments in the semiconductor industry, our products might not be competitive, and our revenues and operating results could suffer.
We must continue to innovate and to invest in research and development to improve our competitive position and to meet the test and measurement requirements of our customers. Our future growth depends, in significant part, upon our ability to work effectively with and anticipate the future technical and operational needs of our customers and to develop and support new
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products and product enhancements to meet those needs on a timely and cost-effective basis. This may become more difficult to do as the semiconductor industry innovates to address demand for AI-related products, which may develop more slowly than we anticipate or change from one period to another. Our customers’ needs are becoming more challenging as the semiconductor industry continues to experience rapid technological change driven by the demand for complex circuits that are shrinking in size, are increasing in speed and functionality, and are produced on shorter cycle times and at reduced unit cost.

Successful product design, development and introduction on a timely basis require that we:

collaborate with customers to understand their future requirements;
design innovative and performance-enhancing product architectures, technologies and features that differentiate our products from those of our competitors;
in some cases, engage with third parties who have particular expertise in order to complete one or more aspects of the design and manufacturing process;
qualify with customers new products, or an existing product incorporating new technology;
transition our products to new manufacturing technologies, as necessary;
offer our products for sale at competitive price levels while maintaining our gross margins within our financial model;
identify emerging technological trends in our target markets;
maintain effective marketing strategies;
obtain and maintain intellectual property rights where necessary;
hire and retain high performing engineering personnel;
respond effectively to technological changes or product announcements by others; and
adjust to changing market conditions quickly and cost-effectively.

Not only do we need the technical expertise to implement the changes necessary to keep our technologies current, but we must also rely heavily on the judgment of our management to anticipate future market trends. If we are unable to timely predict industry changes or industry trends, or if we are unable to modify our products or design, manufacture and deliver new products on a timely basis, or if a third party with which we engage does not timely deliver a component or service for one of our product modifications or new products, we might lose customers or market share. In addition, we might not be able to recover our research and development expenditures, which could harm our operating results.

We depend upon the sale of our probe card products for the substantial majority of our revenues.
We derive the majority of our revenues from the sale of our probe card products, primarily to manufacturers of microprocessors, foundry & logic and memory devices, despite progress in diversifying our product offerings. We anticipate that sales of probe cards will represent a substantial majority of our revenues for the foreseeable future. Our success depends in large part upon the continued acceptance of our products on the basis of a variety of factors including performance, quality, timely delivery and price, and depends upon our ability to continue to develop and introduce new products that meet our customers’ requirements. The degree to which we depend upon the sales of our probe card products for our revenues may increase our susceptibility to failures to satisfy the customers for such products, which may adversely affect our revenues and our ability to grow our business.

We derive a substantial portion of our revenues from a small number of customers.
A relatively small number of customers account for a significant portion of our revenues. One customer represented 17.1% of total revenues in fiscal 2023, one customer represented 19.0% of total revenues in fiscal 2022 and two customers represented a combined 31.8% of total revenues in fiscal 2021. We anticipate that sales of our products to a relatively small number of customers will continue to account for a significant portion of our revenues, which can drive material fluctuations in sales volume, gross margins due to changes in mix, and leverage on fixed costs. Consolidation in the semiconductor industry may increase this concentration. In the future, the loss of any of these customers, or cancellation, reduction or deferral of even a small number of purchases of our products by these customers, could significantly reduce our revenues. A decline in our customers' market share and commercial success, including their ability to compete favorably within their respective end markets, could significantly impact demand for our products and reduce our revenues. Cancellations, reductions, deferrals or non-payment of invoices could result from downturns in the semiconductor industry, including the cyclical downturn we are now experiencing, manufacturing delays, quality or reliability issues with our products, or from interruptions to our customers’ operations due to fire, natural disasters or other events, or other issues with the financial stability of our customers. Furthermore, because our probe cards are custom products designed for our customers’ unique wafer designs, any cancellations, reductions or delays can result in significant non-recoverable costs, including but not limited to the potential for impairment of inventories. In some situations, our customers might be able to cancel or reduce orders without a significant penalty.

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If our relationships with our customers deteriorate, our product development activities could be harmed.
The success of our product development efforts depends upon our ability to anticipate market trends and to collaborate closely with our customers. Our relationships with these customers provide us with access to valuable information regarding manufacturing and process technology trends in the semiconductor industry, which enables us to better plan our product development activities. These relationships also provide us with opportunities to understand the performance and functionality requirements of our customers, which improves our ability to customize our products to fulfill their needs. Our relationships with our customers could deteriorate as a result of a variety of factors, such as if they become concerned about our ability to deliver quality products on a timely basis or to protect their intellectual property. Many of our customers are large companies that place significant orders with us, and the consequences of deterioration in our relationship with any of these companies could be significant due to the competitiveness of our industry and the significant influence that these companies exert in our market.

Consolidation in the semiconductor industry and within the semiconductor test equipment market could adversely affect the market for our products and negatively impact our ability to compete.
Consolidation in the semiconductor industry may reduce our customer base and could adversely affect the market for our products, which could negatively impact our revenues. With consolidation, the number of actual and potential customers for our products has decreased in recent years. Consolidation may lead to relatively fewer opportunities to sell our products if we are not chosen as a supplier by any given prospective customer, and may lead to increased pricing pressures from customers that have greater volume purchasing power.

There has also been consolidation within the semiconductor test equipment market. This consolidation trend could change our interactions and relationships with complementary tester, instrument, and probe card suppliers, and negatively impact our revenue and operating results.

Changes in customers’ test strategies, equipment and processes could decrease customer demand for our products.
The demand for our products depends in large part upon the number of semiconductor designs, the pace of technology and architecture transitions in chip designs and overall semiconductor unit volume. The number of probe cards involved in a customer’s wafer testing can depend upon the number of devices being tested, the complexity of these devices, the test software program, the test equipment itself, and the utilization of chip designs featuring design-for-testability or self-testing capabilities. Customers may demand fewer probe cards or probing systems if they use test strategies that reduce the technical requirements on test equipment, improve available data on device performance earlier in the manufacturing process, or test devices later in the manufacturing process. Changes in the effectiveness of test technologies and test strategies used by customers may cause us to lose sales and revenues.

We may also lose sales if new semiconductor technologies or designs are implemented which cannot be efficiently tested using the products that we offer, or if semiconductor manufacturers reduce the amount or degree of testing that they perform. We may also incur significant research and development expenses in order to introduce new product architectures and platforms to serve the testing needs of new semiconductor technologies. These expenses are often incurred in advance of customer adoption or other anticipated benefits, and the return on these investments may be lower, or may develop more slowly, than we expect. If we do not achieve the benefits anticipated from these investments, or if the achievement of these benefits is delayed, our operating results may be negatively impacted.

Cyclicality in the semiconductor industry has in the past and may in the future adversely impact our sales.
The semiconductor industry has historically been cyclical and is characterized by wide fluctuations in product supply and demand. From time to time, this industry has experienced significant downturns, often in connection with, or in anticipation of, maturing product and technology cycles, excess inventories, and declines in general economic conditions. The global economic and semiconductor downturns have caused and may in the future cause our operating results to decline dramatically from one period to the next. For example, the semiconductor industry has been experiencing a cyclical downturn since the second half of fiscal 2022, which has extended through fiscal 2023, resulting in a significant decline in demand for foundry & logic and DRAM products over the same period. Global economic stability can be negatively affected by a variety of factors and interrelationships, including the impacts of epidemics and pandemics, military conflicts or regional tensions, climate change, trade barriers (such as the U.S.-China trade restrictions implemented since fiscal 2022) and other factors acting alone or in combination. Some of these factors can also have a more direct adverse impact upon our operations to varying degrees. Our business depends heavily upon the development and manufacture of new semiconductors, the rate at which semiconductor manufacturers make transitions to smaller nanometer technology nodes and implement tooling cycles, the volume of production by semiconductor manufacturers, and the overall financial strength of our customers, which, in turn, depend upon the current and anticipated market demand for semiconductors and products that use semiconductors, such as servers, personal computers, automobiles and cell phones. During industry downturns, semiconductor manufacturers sharply curtail their spending, including their spending on our products, which may adversely impact our revenues, gross margins and results of operations. Further, a
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protracted downturn could cause one or more of our customers to become insolvent, resulting in a loss of revenue and impacting our ability to collect on accounts receivable. The timing, length and severity of these cyclical downturns are difficult to predict, and our business depends on our ability to plan for and react to these cyclical changes.

Because we generally do not have a sufficient backlog of unfilled orders to meet our quarterly revenue targets, revenues in any quarter are substantially dependent upon customer orders received and fulfilled in that quarter.
Our revenues are difficult to forecast because we generally do not have sufficient backlog of unfilled orders to meet our quarterly revenue targets at the beginning of a quarter. Rather, a substantial percentage of our revenues in any quarter depend upon customer orders for our products that we receive and fulfill in that quarter. Because our expense levels are based in part on our expectations as to future revenues and to a large extent are fixed in the short term, we might be unable to adjust spending in time to compensate for any unexpected shortfall in revenues.

If our ability to forecast demand for our products or the predictability of our manufacturing yields deteriorates, we could incur high inventory losses.
Each semiconductor chip design requires a custom probe card. Because our probe card products are design-specific, demand for these products is difficult to forecast. Due to our customers’ short delivery time requirements, we often design and procure materials and, at times, produce our products in anticipation of demand for our products rather than in response to an order. Our manufacturing yields and inventory requirements, particularly for new products or when we are operating at high output levels, have at times been unpredictable. If we do not obtain orders as we anticipate, if we suffer manufacturing errors, or if we build additional inventory to compensate for unpredictable manufacturing yields, we could have excess or obsolete inventory that we may not be able to sell, which would likely result in inventory write-offs or material charges for scrap.

If we are unable to efficiently manufacture our existing and new products, our business may be materially adversely affected.
We must continuously improve our manufacturing processes in an effort to increase yields and product performance, lower our costs and reduce the time required for us to design, manufacture and deliver our products in volume. If we fail to do so, both our existing products and our new products may not be commercially successful, our revenues and profitability may be adversely affected, our customer relationships and our reputation may be harmed, and our business may be materially adversely affected.

To improve our manufacturing processes, we have incurred, and may incur in the future, substantial costs in an effort to optimize capacity and yields, open new manufacturing facilities, implement new manufacturing technologies, methods and processes, purchase new equipment, upgrade existing equipment, and train technical personnel. We have experienced, and may experience in the future, manufacturing delays and other inefficiencies in connection with implementation of these improvements and customer qualifications of new processes or products. These delays and other inefficiencies may arise from a variety of factors. Further, these investments may consume available cash in the short term for anticipated benefit that may or may not occur. Our operating results and liquidity have been and may in the future be negatively impacted by these factors.

We have also experienced, and may experience in the future, difficulties in manufacturing our complex products in volume, on time, and at acceptable yields and cost, and/or have installation issues in the field, due to the complexity of customer requirements. These challenges, if not timely resolved could have a material adverse effect on operating results and our ability to compete effectively.

If we are unable to continue to reduce the time it takes for us to design and produce products, our growth could be impeded.
Our customers continuously seek to reduce the time it takes them to introduce new products to market. The cyclicality of the semiconductor industry, coupled with changing demands for semiconductor products, requires our customers to be flexible and highly adaptable to changes in the design, volume and mix of products they must produce. We may be unable to design, configure and produce our products within the short cycle times required to respond to such rapid changes. We have lost sales in the past where we were unable to meet a customer’s required delivery schedules. If we are unable to continue to reduce the time it takes for us to design, manufacture and ship our products in response to the needs of our customers, our competitive position could be harmed and we could lose sales.

Products that do not meet specifications or that contain defects could damage our reputation, decrease market acceptance of our technology, cause us to lose customers and revenues, and result in liability to us.
The complexity and ongoing development of our product designs and manufacturing processes could lead to design or manufacturing problems. Problems might result from a number of factors, including design defects, materials failure, failure of components manufactured by our suppliers to meet our specifications, contamination in the manufacturing environment, impurities in the materials used, unknown sensitivities to process conditions such as temperature and humidity, and equipment failures. Any errors or defects could:
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cause lower than anticipated yields and lengthen delivery schedules;
cause delays in product shipments;
cause delays in new product introductions;
cause us to incur warranty expenses;
result in increased costs and diversion of development resources;
cause us to incur increased charges due to unusable inventory;
require design modifications;
have implications for timing of revenue recognition and associated costs; or
decrease market acceptance or customer satisfaction with these products.

The occurrence of any one or more of these events could adversely affect our business, reputation and operating results.

As part of our sales process, we could incur substantial sales and engineering expenses that do not result in revenues.
Our customers generally expend significant efforts evaluating and qualifying our products prior to placing an order. While our customers are evaluating our products, we might incur substantial sales, marketing, and research and development expenses. For example, we typically expend significant resources educating our prospective customers regarding the uses and benefits of our products and customizing them to the potential customer’s needs, for which we might not be reimbursed. The substantial resources we commit to our sales efforts may not result in any revenues from a customer. For example, many semiconductor processes, architectures, and designs never reach production, including those for which we may have expended development effort and expense. In addition, prospective customers might decide not to use our products or use our products for a relatively small percentage of their requirements after we have expended significant effort and expense toward product design, development, and/or manufacturing. If we do not achieve the benefits anticipated from any of these investments, or if the achievement any of these benefits is delayed, our operating results may be negatively impacted.

We obtain some of the components and materials we use in our products from a sole source or a limited group of suppliers, and the partial or complete loss of one of these suppliers, or scarcity of raw materials from one of these suppliers, could cause production delays.
We obtain some of the components and materials used in our products, such as printed circuit board assemblies, plating materials and ceramic substrates, from a sole source or a limited group of suppliers, and in some cases alternative sources are not currently available. Because we rely on purchase orders rather than long-term contracts with the majority of our suppliers, we cannot guarantee our ability to obtain components and materials in the long term. A sole or limited source supplier could increase prices, which could lead to a decline in our gross profit. Our dependence upon sole or limited source suppliers exposes us to several other risks, including inability to obtain an adequate supply of materials, late deliveries, poor component quality, and business disruptions while we seek to identify and qualify alternative suppliers. This could be exacerbated by certain events outside the control of either the supplier or us, such as global, regional or national health crises, armed conflicts, regional tensions or other adverse global, regional and national events. The occurrence of any of these risks could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We are dependent on the availability of certain key raw materials and natural resources used in our products and various manufacturing processes, and we rely on third parties to supply us with these materials in a cost-effective and timely manner. Our access to raw materials may be adversely affected if our suppliers’ operations were disrupted as a result of limited or delayed access to key raw materials and natural resources, which may result in increased cost for these items.

Our operations, or those of our important suppliers, business partners and customers, could be adversely affected by events outside of our control such as natural disasters, pandemics and man-made disasters.
Our business is vulnerable to the direct and indirect impact of natural and man-made disasters, such as floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, nuclear accidents, acts of terrorism, epidemics, pandemics, military conflicts, climate change, and other factors acting alone or in combination. It is also possible that future natural and man-made disasters could negatively impact the sales of our products as a result of impacts upon our customers’ ability to make or sell their products, or impacts upon our suppliers’ ability to supply components to us on a timely basis.

For example, the COVID-19 pandemic has shown the extent to which new pathogens are capable of disrupting business operations and economic activity locally and worldwide. Health crises can severely disrupt global supply chains, including for parts and materials that we use to manufacture our products, and affect economic conditions in the markets for our products. The circumstances which give rise to epidemics and pandemics from new or existing pathogens with similar impacts are expected to persist indefinitely.

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Another example of events outside of our control arises from our manufacturing facilities being located in seismically active areas in California and Oregon. The manufacturing equipment and processes that we use can be severely disrupted by seismic activity. A significant seismic event in an area of our operations could have a materially negative impact on our operations, financial results or financial condition.

Much of the infrastructure on which we rely for our operations is outside of our control, such as electric power infrastructure. We have previously experienced disruptions to electrical power at some of our premises in California and China, especially when aging infrastructure or inadequate electric power service has been impacted by high demand, fires, and weather which may worsen over time with climate change, and other events. Our efforts to mitigate the effects on us from interruptions in the availability of electric power, or other infrastructure, may not adequately prevent materially negative impacts on our operations, and in turn our financial results.

Climate change, or legal, regulatory or market measures to address climate change, may negatively affect our business and operations.
The physical impacts of climate change could adversely impact our costs and operations. There has been public discussion that climate change may be associated with rising sea levels as well as extreme weather conditions such as more intense hurricanes, thunderstorms, tornadoes, drought, and snow or ice storms. Extreme weather conditions may increase our costs or cause damage to our facilities, and any damage resulting from extreme weather may not be fully insured, and may also limit our ability to fully insure facilities on a cost-effective basis in the future. Periods of extended inclement weather may inhibit construction of our capital improvement projects. Any such events could adversely impact our costs or results of operations.

Concerns relating to climate change have led to a range of local, state, federal, and international regulatory and policy efforts to seek to address greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions. In the U.S., various approaches are being proposed or adopted at the federal, state, and local government levels, such as recent legislation enacted in California. These efforts could lead to additional costs on the Company now or in the future, including increased energy and other capital or operational costs, or additional legal requirements on the Company. These efforts could also materially increase our costs of evaluating potential manufacturing sites, or in some cases eliminate some potential locations as feasible sites. In addition to the potential for additional GHG regulation or incentives, enhanced corporate, public, and stakeholder awareness of climate change could affect the Company's reputation or customer demand. Climate change concerns and GHG regulatory efforts could also affect the Company's customers themselves. We could also face pressure from these groups to adapt our physical facilities for alternative sources of energy, which may be less cost-effective than current sources. Any of these factors, individually or combined with one or more factors, or other unforeseen factors or other impacts of climate change, could affect the Company and adversely impact our business, operations, or financial condition.

Adverse global, regional and national economic conditions could have a negative effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, and access to capital markets.
A variety of factors, including natural disasters, health crises, climate change, military conflicts and other geopolitical events, may adversely affect national, regional and global economies and financial markets. Any such adverse events may result in global, regional or national economic slowdowns or other economic downturns. Such downturns could curtail or delay spending by businesses and consumers which may ultimately result in reductions in the demand for our products, greater volatility in demand and supply conditions and other adverse impacts. For example, any deterioration in the relations between Taiwan and China, and other factors affecting military, political or economic conditions in Taiwan or elsewhere in Asia, could adversely impact our suppliers, manufacturers and customers with operations located in the region, which could disrupt our business operations, affect demand for our products or increase our costs, negatively impacting our revenues, gross margins, and overall results of operations. Additionally, these events may also increase uncertainty in global credit and financial markets. The impacts of such uncertainty and disruptions to the availability of credit or other sources of capital could also adversely affect our ability to access capital on favorable terms or on a timely basis to meet our objectives. Any of these factors could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Sustained inflation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
Inflation rates in the markets in which we operate have increased and may continue to rise. Inflation in recent periods has led us to experience higher costs related to labor, materials from suppliers, and transportation. Our suppliers raised their prices and may continue to raise prices, and in the competitive markets in which we operate, we may not be able to make corresponding price increases, productivity improvements or cost reductions to preserve our gross margins and profitability. If inflation rates continue to rise or remain elevated for a sustained period of time, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. We have generally been able to offset increases in these costs through various productivity improvement and cost reduction initiatives, as well as by adjusting our selling prices to pass through some of these higher costs to our customers; however, our ability to raise our selling prices depends on market conditions and
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competitive dynamics. Given the timing of our actions compared to the timing of these inflationary pressures, there may be periods during which we are unable to fully recover the increases in our costs.

We rely on the security and integrity of our electronic data systems, managed both internally and by third parties, for our business requirements, and our business can be damaged by disruptions, security breaches or compromises of these systems.
We rely on electronic data systems, including a variety of software and networking, computing and storage equipment and other information technologies, to operate and manage our business and to collect, process, maintain, and safeguard information, including information belonging to our customers, partners, and personnel.

Our electronic data systems may be subject to defects, failures or disruptions as a result of, among other things, natural disasters, accidents, power disruptions, telecommunications failures, deficiencies in new system designs and implementations, acts of terrorism or war, physical security breaches, computer viruses or other cyber attacks. Such incidents or other system failures or disruptions could subject us to downtime and delays, compromise or loss of sensitive or proprietary information, destruction or corruption of data, financial losses from remedial actions, breaches of obligations to third parties under privacy laws or contracts, or damage to our reputation or customer relationships. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

Because we conduct most of our business internationally, we are subject to operational, economic, financial and political risks abroad.
Sales of our products to customers outside of the United States represent a significant part of our past and anticipated revenues. Our international sales as a percentage of our revenues were 74%, 83% and 84% for fiscal 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Certain of our non-U.S. based customers also purchase through their subsidiaries in the United States. In the future we expect international sales to continue to account for a significant percentage of our revenues. Accordingly, we will be subject to risks and challenges that we would not otherwise face if we conducted our business solely in the United States.

These risks and challenges include:

compliance with a wide variety of foreign laws and regulations, including social, political, immigration, and tax and trade policies;
legal uncertainties regarding taxes, tariffs, quotas, export controls, export licenses and other trade barriers;
political and economic instability or foreign conflicts, including trade wars, that involve or affect the countries of our customers;
government restrictions on, or nationalization of, our operations in any country, or restrictions on our ability to repatriate earnings from or distribute compensation or other funds in a particular country;
adverse changes relating to government grants, tax credits, or other government incentives, including more favorable incentives provided to competitors;
difficulties in collecting accounts receivable and longer accounts receivable payment cycles;
difficulties in staffing and managing personnel, distributors and representatives;
reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
currency exchange rate fluctuations, which could affect the value of our assets denominated in local currency, as well as the price of our products relative to locally produced products;
global, regional and national geopolitical or other events, such as political instability, acts of war or terrorism, regional tensions, health crises and natural disasters;
seasonal fluctuations in purchasing patterns in other countries; and
fluctuations in freight rates and transportation disruptions.

Any of these factors could harm our existing international operations, impair our ability to continue expanding into international markets or materially adversely affect our operating results. Political developments in the United States and elsewhere may increase the risks and uncertainties associated with conducting international business, including the possibilities of greater tariffs and other trade barriers in the regions where we conduct business. In fiscal 2023, we observed a continuing trend of increasing risks and challenges in the conduct of our international business activities, including expanded tariffs and other trade barriers affecting the United States and China. Additionally, we are required to comply with foreign import and export requirements, customs and value added tax standards that can be unclear or complex. Our failure to meet these requirements and standards could negatively impact our business operations.

Our foreign operations expose us to additional risks relating to currency fluctuations.
Our international operations are significant to our revenues and net income, and we plan to continue to grow internationally. We have significant business operations located in Germany. While we report our financial results in U.S. dollars, we incur certain costs in other currencies, and have certain foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities. We, therefore, face
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exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Significant fluctuations in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies may adversely affect our revenues and earnings, despite our hedging of a portion of our international currency exposures. Additionally, hedging programs are inherently risky and could expose us to additional costs and risks that could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Increasingly restrictive export regulations and other trade barriers may materially harm our business.
Sales of our products to customers outside of the United States represent a significant part of our past and anticipated revenues, including sales involving exports from the United States to China. Geopolitical and trade tensions between the United States and China, one of our largest markets, have led to increased tariffs and trade restrictions and have affected customer ordering patterns, and this dynamic between the countries may persist or increase for the foreseeable future. For example, the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (“BIS”), has recently amended the U.S. Export Administration Regulations to expand license requirements on exports to entities in China that may support military end uses. These rules expand export license requirements on a broader set of items from the U.S., including many of our products, and for a broader set of customers in China and elsewhere. The BIS has also broadened the application of U.S. export controls to certain items which may be subject to Foreign Direct Product Rules (“FDPR”). There is no assurance that we will obtain any export licenses on a timely basis or at all. There also remains considerable uncertainty regarding the interpretation and implementation of new regulations. In reaction to U.S. trade regulations, governments and private businesses outside the United States, particularly in China, may implement retaliatory controls and preferences for non-U.S. or local suppliers, which can increase our manufacturing costs, make our products less competitive, reduce demand for our products, limit our ability to sell to certain customers, limit our ability to procure components or raw materials, or impede or slow the movement of our goods across borders. For example, China has restricted U.S. access to certain minerals and has blocked certain companies that provide products to Taiwan's military from selling products in China. Also, in China, we are already observing stronger preferences for non-U.S. suppliers in general, and in favor of new and existing local suppliers in particular. These and other regulatory and policy changes, and the reactions of customers to such changes, in the U.S. and elsewhere, could materially and negatively affect our future sales and operating results.

If we fail to protect our proprietary rights, our competitors might gain access to our technology, which could adversely affect our ability to compete successfully in our markets.
If we choose not to protect our proprietary rights or fail in our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, our competitors might gain access to our technology. Unauthorized parties might attempt to copy aspects of our products or to obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary. Others might independently develop similar or competing technologies or methods or design around our patents. In addition, the laws of many foreign countries in which we or our customers do business do not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. As a result, our proprietary rights could be compromised, our competitors might offer products similar to ours, and we might not be able to compete successfully. We also cannot assure that:

our means of protecting our proprietary rights will be adequate;
patents will be issued from our pending or future applications;
our existing or future patents will be sufficient in scope or strength to provide any meaningful protection or commercial advantage to us;
our patents or other intellectual property will not be invalidated, circumvented or successfully challenged in the United States or foreign countries; or
others will not misappropriate our proprietary technologies or independently develop similar technologies, duplicate our products or design around any of our patents or other intellectual property, or attempt to manufacture and sell infringing products in countries that do not strongly enforce intellectual property rights.

We have spent, and may be required to spend in the future, significant resources to monitor and protect our intellectual property rights. Any litigation, whether or not resolved in our favor, and whether initiated by us or by a third party, could result in significant and possibly material expenses to us and divert the efforts of our management and technical personnel.

We might be subject to claims of infringement of other parties’ proprietary rights.
Our industry is characterized by uncertain and conflicting intellectual property claims. As we have in the past, we may receive claims that we are infringing intellectual property rights of others. The resolution of intellectual property claims, with or without merit, could be time consuming, result in costly litigation with highly uncertain outcomes, or impact our delivery of products. In the event of an adverse judgement or settlement, we might be required to pay substantial amounts, cease the use or sale of infringing products, spend significant resources to develop non-infringing technology, discontinue the use of certain technology, or enter into license agreements. License agreements might not be available on terms acceptable to us or at all. In addition, certain of our customer contracts contain provisions that require us to defend or indemnify our customers for third
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party intellectual property infringement claims, which could increase the costs and negative impacts of intellectual property claims.

We have recorded restructuring, inventory write-offs and asset impairment charges in the past, and may do so again in the future, which could have a material negative impact on our business.
We have recorded significant restructuring charges in prior periods, and we may implement restructuring plans in the future, which would require us to take additional, potentially material, restructuring charges related to employee terminations, asset disposal or exit costs. We may also be required to write-off additional inventory if our product build plans or usage of inventory experience declines, and such additional write-offs could constitute material charges. In addition, significant adverse changes in market conditions could require us to take additional material impairment charges related to our long-lived assets if the changes impact the critical assumptions or estimates that we use in our assessment of the recoverability of our long-lived assets. Any such additional charges, whether related to restructuring, asset impairment or factory underutilization, may have a material negative impact on our operating results and related financial statements.

We may not be able to recruit or retain qualified personnel.
We believe our ability to manage successfully and grow our business and to develop new products depends, in large part, on our ability to recruit and retain qualified employees, particularly highly skilled technical, sales, management, and other key personnel. Competition for qualified resources is intense. Other companies may have greater resources available to provide substantial inducements to lure key personnel away from us or to offer more competitive compensation packages to individuals we are trying to hire.

Our failure to comply with environmental laws and regulations could subject us to significant fines and liabilities, and new laws and regulations or changes in regulatory interpretation or enforcement could make compliance more difficult and costly.
We are subject to various U.S. federal, state and local, and foreign governmental laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment, including those governing the discharge of pollutants into the air and water, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, the cleanup of contaminated sites and the maintenance of a safe workplace. We could incur substantial costs, including cleanup costs, civil or criminal fines or sanctions, and third-party claims for property damage or personal injury, as a result of violations of or liabilities under environmental laws and regulations or non-compliance with the environmental permits required at our facilities.

Environmental laws, regulations and permits could require the installation of costly pollution or waste control equipment or operational changes to limit waste or emissions or decrease the likelihood of accidental releases of hazardous substances. In addition, changing laws and regulations, new laws and regulations, stricter enforcement of existing laws and regulations, the discovery of previously unknown contamination at our or others’ sites, or the imposition of new cleanup requirements could require us to curtail our operations, restrict our future expansion, subject us to liability and cause us to incur future costs that could harm our operations, thereby adversely impacting our operating results and cash flow.

We are exposed to additional risks as a result of increased attention by our stakeholders to environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) matters.
Our stakeholders, including customers, investors, advisory firms, employees, and suppliers, among others, are increasing their attention to, and establishing expectations for, ESG and related matters. These expectations can extend to our corporate practices, initiatives, and disclosures, as well as stakeholder standards or preferences for investments or doing business. Third-party agencies have also established or added standards for rating companies on a range of ESG-related factors that may be inconsistent and subject to change. As a result, these expectations may impact the attractiveness of our business, the manner in which we do business, our reputation, the costs of doing business, and the willingness of these stakeholders to engage with, invest in, or retain us. We may be further impacted by the adoption and evolution of ESG-related regulation and legislation in the jurisdictions in which we do business, which could result in increased compliance, operational, and other costs.

In addition, the Company has provided voluntary disclosures on ESG matters, including energy usage, greenhouse gas emissions, health and safety, diversity and inclusion, and labor and human rights. Such disclosures are aspirational and based on frameworks and standards for such initiatives and progress that are still developing, assumptions that may change, and disclosure control and procedures that continue to evolve. We may fail, or be perceived to fail, in attaining or maintaining our ESG-related initiatives. The topics on which we focus may not be popular with our stakeholders. These events or perceptions may expose us to additional reputational and operational risks.

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Risks Relating to Our Acquisitions

We have made acquisitions, and may make additional acquisitions or investments in the future, which could put a strain on our resources, cause ownership dilution to our stockholders, or adversely affect our financial results.
Our acquisitions or investments may subject us to new or heightened risks. Integrating any newly acquired businesses, products or technologies into our company draws upon our resources in ways that can be expensive and time consuming. These activities can substantially affect our financial resources, could cause delays in product delivery and might not be successful. Acquisitions and investments can divert management’s attention and expose our business to new liabilities or risks associated with entering into new business activities. In addition, we might lose key employees while integrating new organizations. We might not be successful in integrating any acquired businesses, products or technologies, and might not achieve anticipated revenues and cost benefits. Investments that we make may not result in a return consistent with our projections upon which such investments are made, or may require additional investment that we did not originally anticipate. In addition, acquisitions can result in customer dissatisfaction, performance problems with an acquired company, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt and restrictive debt covenants, contingent liabilities, possible impairment charges related to goodwill or other intangible assets, or other adverse impacts or circumstances. If any of these risks were to come about, our business, financial results and stock price could be materially and adversely affected.

If goodwill or other intangible assets that we recorded, or will record, in connection with our acquisitions become impaired, we could be required to take significant charges against earnings.
In connection with our accounting for acquired businesses, we record a significant amount of goodwill and other intangible assets. Under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, we must assess, at least annually and potentially more frequently, whether the value of goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets have been impaired. Finite-lived intangible assets are assessed for impairment in the event of an impairment indicator. Any reduction or impairment of the value of goodwill or other intangible assets will result in a charge against earnings, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and stockholders’ equity in future periods.

Risks Relating to Owning Our Stock

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal and disclosure controls and procedures, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud.
Effective internal and disclosure controls and procedures are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports, to prevent fraud and to operate successfully as a public company. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our business and reputation may be harmed. We regularly review and assess our internal controls over financial reporting and our disclosure controls and procedures. As part of that process, we may discover material weaknesses in our internal controls. If we fail to maintain effective controls or timely implement any necessary improvement of our internal and disclosure controls, we may not have accurate information to make management decisions, our operating results could be harmed, or we may fail to meet our reporting obligations. Ineffective internal and disclosure controls could also cause stockholders to lose confidence in our reported financial information and our ability to manage our business, which would likely have a negative effect on the trading price of our securities.

The trading price of our common stock has been and is likely to continue to be volatile, and you might not be able to sell your shares at or above the price that you paid for them.
The trading prices of the securities of technology companies have been highly volatile. During fiscal 2023, our stock price (Nasdaq Global Market close price) ranged from $21.92 per share to $42.01 per share. The trading price of our common stock is likely to continue to be subject to wide fluctuations. Factors affecting the trading price of our common stock could include:

variations in our operating results;
our forecasts and financial guidance for future periods;
announcements of technological innovations, new products or product enhancements, new product adoptions at semiconductor customers or significant agreements by us or by our competitors;
reports regarding our ability to bring new products into volume production efficiently;
the gain or loss of significant orders or customers;
changes in the estimates of our operating results or changes in recommendations by any securities analysts that elect to follow our common stock;
rulings on litigation and proceedings;
seasonality, principally due to our customers' purchasing cycles;
market and competitive conditions in our industry, the entire semiconductor industry and the economy as a whole;
recruitment or departure of key personnel;
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announcements of mergers and acquisition transactions and the ability to successfully integrate the business activities of the acquired/merged company; and
political and global economic instability, including as a result of trade barriers, natural disasters, epidemics and pandemics, military conflicts, climate change, and other factors acting alone or in combination.

In addition, if the market for technology stocks or the stock market in general experiences loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, operating results or financial condition. The trading price of our common stock also might decline in reaction to events that affect other companies in our industry even if these events do not directly affect us.

Provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws or Delaware law might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.
Delaware corporate law and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management that the stockholders of our company may deem advantageous. These provisions:

establish a transition from a classified board of directors to a declassified board of directors, such that, until the annual shareholder meeting in 2024, not all members of our board are elected at one time;
provide that directors may only be removed “for cause” and only with the approval of 66.7% of our stockholders;
require super-majority voting to amend some provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws;
authorize the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that our board could issue to increase the number of outstanding shares and to discourage a takeover attempt;
limit the ability of our stockholders to call special meetings of stockholders;
prohibit stockholder action by written consent, which requires all stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of our stockholders;
provide that the board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our bylaws; and
establish advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our board or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings.

In addition, Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company. Also, each of our named executive officers and certain other executives of the company have entered into change of control severance agreements, which were approved by our Compensation Committee, which could increase the costs associated with a change of control and thus potentially deter such a transaction.

Item 1B:    Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 1C:    Cybersecurity

Risk Management and Strategy

We recognize the importance of assessing, identifying, and managing material risks associated with cybersecurity threats. These risks include, among other things, operational risks; intellectual property theft; fraud; extortion; harm to our employees or customers; violation of applicable privacy or security laws and other litigation and legal risk; and reputational risks.

Manage Material Risks & Integrated Overall Risks
We maintain an incident response plan to coordinate the activities we take to protect against, detect, respond to, mitigate the impact of, and remediate cybersecurity incidents, as well as to comply with applicable legal obligations and mitigate reputational damage.

We have strategically integrated cybersecurity risk management into our broader risk management framework to promote company-wide awareness of the importance of cybersecurity risk management. This integration ensures that cybersecurity considerations are incorporated in our strategic and operational decision-making processes. Our management team works closely with our Information Technology (“IT”) team to continuously evaluate and address cybersecurity risks to ensure these efforts are in alignment with our business objectives and operational needs. We have implemented several cybersecurity processes, technologies, and controls to aid in our efforts to identify, assess, and manage material risks, as well as to test and improve our incident response plan. Our approach includes, among other things:

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conducting regular network and endpoint monitoring, vulnerability assessments, and penetration testing to improve our information systems;
regular cybersecurity training for employees, including management, and conducting regular cybersecurity management and incident training for employees involved in execution of our incident response plan;
comparing our processes to standards set by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”);
leveraging the NIST incident handling framework to help us identify, protect, detect, respond, and recover when there is an actual or potential cybersecurity incident;
operating threat intelligence processes designed to model and research our adversaries;
monitoring emerging data protection laws and implementing changes to our processes designed to comply;
conducting regular phishing email simulations for all employees and all contractors with access to corporate email systems to enhance awareness and responsiveness to such possible threats;
through policy, practice and contract (as applicable) requiring employees, as well as third-parties who provide services on our behalf, to treat customer information and data with care;
carrying information security risk insurance that provides protection against the potential losses arising from a cybersecurity incident; and
leveraging third-party score cards within our supply chain to regularly evaluate and report on our cybersecurity environment, including by integrating certain metrics into our corporate goal setting processes.

These approaches vary in maturity across the business, and we work continually to improve them.

Engage Third Parties on Risk Management
Recognizing the complexity and evolving nature of cybersecurity threats, we engage with a range of external experts, including cybersecurity assessors, consultants, and auditors in evaluating and testing our cybersecurity environment. These partnerships enable us to leverage specialized knowledge and insights, ensuring our cybersecurity strategies and processes are responsive to our identified risks. Our collaboration with these third parties include regular audits, threat assessments, and consultation on security enhancements.

Oversee Third-party Risk
We are aware of and have processes in place to manage and mitigate the risks associated with third-party service providers. As needed in connection with certain third-party providers, we conduct risk-based diligence and assessment before engagement, implement contractual security provisions and maintain ongoing monitoring to ensure compliance with applicable cybersecurity standards or requirements.

Risks from Cybersecurity Threats
We have not experienced any material cybersecurity incidents, and the expenses we have incurred from cybersecurity incidents were immaterial.

Governance

The Board is acutely aware of the critical nature of managing risks associated with cybersecurity threats. The Board has established oversight mechanisms to ensure effective governance in managing risks associated with cybersecurity threats because we recognize the potential significance of these threats to our operational integrity and financial condition.

Board of Directors' Oversight
The Governance and Nominating Committee is central to the Board’s oversight of cybersecurity risks and bears the primary responsibility for this domain. The Governance and Nominating Committee and the Board are composed of Board members with diverse expertise including, risk management, technology, and finance, equipping them to oversee cybersecurity risks effectively.

Management’s Role Managing Risk
The management team provides comprehensive briefings to the Governance and Nominating Committee of our Board on a regular basis, with a minimum frequency of once per year. These briefings encompass a broad range of topics as discussed in Reporting to Board of Directors below.

In addition, the IT team maintains an ongoing dialog with our management team regarding emerging or potential cybersecurity risks. The management team receives updates on any significant developments in the cybersecurity domain, ensuring oversight is proactive and responsive. This involvement ensures that cybersecurity considerations are integrated into our broader strategic objectives.

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Risk Management Personnel
Our Chief Information Officer is primarily responsible for the overall assessment, monitoring, and management of our cybersecurity risks. Our Chief Information Officer has over 20 years of experience in information technology and holds a B.S. in accounting and management information systems. Our management team members are responsible for the management of cybersecurity risks within their respective functions. Our management team includes the Chief Financial Officer, Chief Executive Officer, and leaders of our business units and functions. Collectively their backgrounds include a wealth of expertise relevant to their roles.

Monitor Cybersecurity Incidents
The Chief Information Officer and executive management team are informed about the latest developments in cybersecurity, including risk management techniques, as well as significant potential threats, through their ongoing management of and participation in the cybersecurity risk management processes described above. This ongoing knowledge is crucial for the effective prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents. The Chief Information Officer implements and oversees processes for the regular monitoring of our information systems. This includes the deployment of security measures and system audits to identify potential vulnerabilities.

Reporting to the Board of Directors
The Chief Information Officer regularly informs the Chief Financial Officer and Chief Executive Officer of critical aspects related to cybersecurity risks and incidents. This ensures that the highest levels of management are kept abreast of the Company’s cybersecurity posture and potential risks. The Governance and Nominating Committee receives regular updates from management on cybersecurity risk, including:

current cybersecurity landscape and emerging threats;
status of ongoing cybersecurity initiatives and strategies;
incident reporting and learnings from any cybersecurity events;
information regarding the effectiveness of the Company’s cybersecurity awareness program; and
compliance with regulatory requirements and industry standards.

In such updates, the Governance and Nominating Committee generally receives materials including a cybersecurity scorecard and other materials indicating current and emerging cybersecurity threat risks and describing our ability to mitigate those risks, and discusses such matters with our Chief Information Officer.

Significant cybersecurity matters, and strategic risk management decisions are escalated to the Board, ensuring that they have comprehensive oversight and can provide guidance on critical cybersecurity matters.

Item 2:    Properties

Our corporate headquarters, which includes sales, marketing, administration, manufacturing, engineering, and research and development facilities, is located in Livermore, California, United States. Our corporate headquarters comprises a campus of five buildings totaling approximately 259,000 square feet. We presently lease four of the buildings and own one of the buildings. Adjacent to our campus we own approximately 6 acres of vacant land for future expansion. In addition, we lease office, repair and service, manufacturing and/or research and development space both inside and outside of the United States. The leases expire at various times through 2034. We believe that our existing and planned facilities are suitable for our current needs.

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Information concerning our properties as of December 30, 2023 is set forth below:
LocationPrincipal UseSegmentSquare
Footage
Ownership
Livermore, California, United StatesManufacturingProbe Cards90,508 Owned
Livermore, California, United StatesCorporate headquarters, sales, marketing, administration, product design, manufacturing, service and repair, distribution, research and developmentAll168,636 Leased
Thiendorf, GermanySales, marketing, administration, manufacturing, service and repair, distribution, research and developmentSystems101,291 Leased
Beaverton, Oregon, United StatesSales, marketing, administration, product design, manufacturing, service and repair, distribution, research and developmentProbe Cards101,205 Leased
Baldwin Park, California, United States
Manufacturing, service and repair, distribution, research and development
Probe Cards44,000 Leased
Boulder, Colorado, United StatesSales, marketing, administration, manufacturing, distribution, research and developmentSystems34,133 Leased
Carlsbad, California, United StatesSales, product design, administration, manufacturing, service and repair, distribution, research and developmentProbe Cards42,080 Leased
Woburn, Massachusetts, United StatesSales, marketing, administration, manufacturing, distribution, research and developmentSystems26,070 Leased
Jubei City, Hsinchu, TaiwanSales, administration, product design, field service and repair centerAll25,631 Leased
SingaporeSales, administration, product design, service, and field serviceAll24,413 Leased
Suzhou, China(1)
Sales, marketing, administration, product design, manufacturing, service and repair, distribution, research and developmentAll22,777 Leased
San Jose, California, United StatesSales, marketing, and distributionSystems21,489 Leased
Bundang, South KoreaSales, administration, product design, field service, and repair centerAll17,161 Leased
Yokohama City, JapanSales, marketing, administration, product design, manufacturing, service and repair, distribution, research and developmentAll16,150 Leased
Munich, GermanySales, manufacturing, administration, service and repair, distribution, research and developmentSystems18,786 Leased
Shanghai, China(1)
Sales and service All3,348 Leased
Dresden, GermanySales and serviceAll2,960 Leased
Hiroshima, JapanRepair centerProbe Cards1,007 Leased

(1) On February 7, 2024, the Company signed an agreement with Grand Junction Semiconductor Pte. Ltd. to divest its China operations. These leased locations are to be included as part of the divestiture. See Note 19 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details.

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Item 3:    Legal Proceedings

Information with respect to this item may be found under the caption “Legal Matters” in Note 12, Commitments and Contingencies, to our consolidated financial statements included herein, which information is incorporated into this Item 3 by reference.

Item 4:    Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

PART II

Item 5:    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Stock Information
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “FORM.” As of February 16, 2024, there were 115 registered holders of record of our common stock, which does not include beneficial owners of stock held in street name (i.e., through a brokerage firm, bank, broker-dealer, trust or other similar organization).

Dividends
No cash dividends have been declared on shares of our common stock, and the Company currently does not intend to pay dividends in the future.

Repurchases of Common Stock
In October 2023, our Board of Directors authorized a program to repurchase up to $75.0 million of outstanding common stock to offset potential dilution from issuances of our common stock under our employee stock purchase plan and equity incentive plan. This authorization was in addition to the program authorized in May 2022 to repurchase up to $75.0 million of outstanding common stock that was fully utilized as of December 30, 2023. Under the current stock repurchase program, we may repurchase shares from time to time on the open market. The pace of repurchase activity will depend on levels of cash generation, the Company's current stock price, and other factors. The program may be modified or discontinued at any time. The current share repurchase program will expire October 2025.

The following table provides information as of December 30, 2023 with respect to the shares of common stock repurchased during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023 pursuant to the foregoing Board authorization.
Period (fiscal months)Total Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsMaximum Amount that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
October 1, 2023 - October 28, 2023— $— — $93,634,446 
October 29, 2023 - November 25, 2023184,464 36.77 184,464 86,851,705 
November 26, 2023 - December 30, 2023351,908 36.99 351,908 73,834,628 
536,372 $36.92 536,372 

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Stock Price Performance Graph
The following graph shows the total stockholder return of an investment of $100 in cash on December 29, 2018 through December 30, 2023 for (1) our common stock, (2) the S&P 500 Index, and (3) the S&P Semiconductors Select Industry Index. All values assume reinvestment of the full amount of all dividends. Stockholder returns over the indicated period are based on historical data and are not necessarily indicative of future stockholder returns.
COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among FormFactor, Inc., the S&P 500 Index, and the S&P Semiconductors Select Industry Index2366*$100 invested on December 29, 2018 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
 Cumulative Total Return
 December 29, 2018December 28, 2019December 26, 2020December 25, 2021December 31, 2022December 30, 2023
FormFactor, Inc.$100.00 $185.87 $303.93 $317.70 $158.67 $297.72 
S&P 500 Index100.00 131.49 155.68 200.37 164.08 207.21 
S&P Semiconductors Select Industry Index100.00 165.23 268.27 383.86 265.98 359.96 

Item 6: [Reserved]

Item 7:    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition to historical consolidated financial information, the following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions as described under the “Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” that appears earlier in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our actual results could differ materially from those
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anticipated by these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those discussed under “Item 1A: Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Overview

FormFactor, Inc., headquartered in Livermore, California, is a leading provider of essential test and measurement technologies along the full semiconductor product lifecycle - from characterization, modeling, reliability, and design de-bug, to qualification and production test. We provide a broad range of high-performance probe cards, analytical probes, probe stations, metrology systems, thermal systems, and cryogenic systems to both semiconductor companies and scientific institutions. Our products provide electrical information from a variety of semiconductor and electro-optical devices and integrated circuits from early research, through development, to high-volume production. Customers use our products and services to accelerate profitability by optimizing device performance, reducing scrap, and improving yields.

We operate in two reportable segments consisting of the Probe Cards segment and the Systems segment. Sales of our probe cards and analytical probes are included in the Probe Cards segment, while sales of our probe stations, metrology systems, thermal systems and cryogenic systems are included in the Systems segment.

We generated net income of $82.4 million in fiscal 2023 compared to net income of $50.7 million in fiscal 2022 and net income of $83.9 million in fiscal 2021. On November 1, 2023, we completed the sale of our FRT Metrology (“FRT”) business. As a result of the transaction, we received aggregate net consideration of $99.8 million and the transaction resulted in a gain of $73.0 million.

The increase in net income in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was primarily due to the $73.0 million gain recognized from the sale of our FRT business. Apart from this gain, the semiconductor industry weakness that began in the third quarter of fiscal 2022 continued into fiscal 2023, impacting our Probe Cards segment with a $93.5 million reduction in revenue and the associated decline in gross margins as a result of the lower operating levels. Despite the overall semiconductor industry weakness that impacted the Probe Cards segment, the Systems segment continued to show strength with revenue increasing $8.7 million, or about 5.6% in fiscal 2022, since customer spending for products in this segment is driven by research and development of next-generation innovation.

The decrease in net income in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily due to decreased revenues, lower margins driven primarily by a less favorable product mix and lower factory utilization, and increased restructuring charges. This was partially offset by a reduction in the amortization of intangibles and in the annual effective tax rate. The first half of fiscal 2022 was strong, producing net income of $60.1 million with $401.1 million in revenue at 47.0% gross margins. In the second half of fiscal 2022, revenues declined, mainly within the Probe Cards segment, and mix became less favorable, resulting in a net loss of $9.4 million with $346.9 million in revenue at 31.0% gross margins. Despite the decline in total revenues in the second half of fiscal 2022, the Systems segment recognized record revenue levels in the third and fourth quarters of fiscal 2022.

Recent Development

On February 7, 2024, we signed an agreement with Grand Junction Semiconductor Pte. Ltd. to divest our China operations and establish an exclusive distribution and partnership agreement to continue sales and support of our products in the region (the “China Transaction”). The China Transaction is expected to close in the first half of 2024.

Fiscal Year

We operate on a 52/53 week fiscal year, whereby the fiscal year ends on the last Saturday of December. The fiscal years ended December 30, 2023, December 31, 2022 and December 25, 2021 included 52 weeks, 53 weeks (with 14 weeks in the fourth quarter) and 52 weeks, respectively.

Use of Estimates

Preparation of our financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

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Critical Accounting Policies

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of net revenue and expenses in the reporting period. Our accounting policies are fundamental to understanding our financial condition and results of operations reported in our financial statements and related disclosures. We have identified the following accounting policies as being critical because they require our management to make particularly difficult, subjective and/or complex judgments about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Our management has discussed the development, selection, application and disclosure of these critical accounting policies with the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors.

Inventory Valuation
We state our inventories at the lower of cost (principally standard cost which approximates actual cost on a first in, first out basis) or net realizable value. We regularly assess the value of our inventory and will periodically write down its value for estimated excess inventory and product obsolescence based upon an analysis of existing inventory quantities compared to estimated future consumption. Future consumption is estimated based upon assumptions about how past consumption, recent purchases, backlog and other factors may indicate future consumption. On a quarterly basis, we review existing inventory quantities in comparison to our past consumption, recent purchases, backlog and other factors to determine what inventory quantities, if any, may not be sellable. Based on this analysis, we record an adjustment to the cost basis of inventory when evidence exists that the net realizable value of inventory is lower than its cost, which occurs when we have excess and/or obsolete inventory.

At the point of loss recognition, a new, lower cost basis for that inventory is established, and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis. Market conditions are subject to change, and demand for our products can fluctuate significantly. Actual consumption of inventories could differ from forecasted demand, and this difference could have a material impact on our gross profit and inventory balances based on additional provisions for excess or obsolete inventories, or a benefit from the sale of inventories previously written down.

Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized upon transferring control of products and services, and the amounts recognized reflect the consideration we expect to be entitled to receive in exchange for these products and services. An arrangement may include some or all of the following products and services: probe cards, systems, accessories, engineering services, installation services, service contracts and extended warranty contracts.

A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer. In contracts with multiple performance obligations, we identify each performance obligation and evaluate whether the performance obligation is distinct within the context of the contract at contract inception. Performance obligations that are not distinct at contract inception are combined and accounted for as one unit of account. Generally, the performance obligations in a contract are considered distinct within the context of the contract and are accounted for as separate units of account.

Our products may be customized to our customers’ specifications; however, control of our product is typically transferred to the customer at the point in time the product is either shipped or delivered, depending on the terms of the arrangement, as the criteria for over time recognition is not met. In limited circumstances, substantive acceptance by the customer exists which results in the deferral of revenue until acceptance is formally received from the customer. Judgment may be required in determining if the acceptance clause is substantive. In certain instances control of products is transferred to the customer over time based on performance and in those instances we utilize an appropriate input or output measure to determine to what extent control has transferred to the customer. Judgment may be required in determining an appropriate measure of performance.

Installation services are routinely provided to customers purchasing our systems. Installation services are a distinct performance obligation apart from the systems and are recognized in the period they are performed. Service contracts, which include repair and maintenance service contracts, and extended warranty contracts are also distinct performance obligations and are recognized over the contractual service period, which ranges from one to three years. For these service contracts recognized over time, we use the input measure of days elapsed to measure progress.

A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. In determining the transaction price, we evaluate whether the price is subject to refund or adjustment to determine the net consideration to which we expect to be entitled. We generally do not grant return privileges, except for defective products during the warranty period. Sales incentives and other programs that we may make available to
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our customers are considered to be a form of variable consideration, which is estimated in determining the contract’s transaction price to be allocated to the performance obligations.

For contracts with multiple performance obligations, we allocate the contract’s transaction price to each performance obligation based on its relative stand-alone selling price. The stand-alone selling prices are determined based on observable prices, which are the prices at which we separately sell these products. For items which do not have observable prices, we use our best estimate of the stand-alone selling prices.

We account for tax assessed by a governmental authority that is directly imposed on a revenue-producing transaction (i.e., sales, use, value added) on a net (excluded from revenue) basis.

Results of Operations

In this section, we discuss the results of our operations for the year ended December 30, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. For a discussion of the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the year ended December 25, 2021, please refer to Part II, Item 7, “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.

The following table sets forth our operating results as a percentage of revenues:
 Fiscal 2023Fiscal 2022Fiscal 2021
Revenues100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
Cost of revenues61.0 60.4 58.1 
Gross profit39.0 39.6 41.9 
Operating expenses:   
Research and development17.5 14.6 13.1 
Selling, general and administrative20.1 17.6 16.1 
Total operating expenses37.6 32.2 29.2 
Gain on sale of business11.0 — — 
Operating income12.4 7.4 12.7 
Interest income1.1 0.3 0.1 
Interest expense(0.1)(0.1)(0.1)
Other income (expense), net0.20.1
Income before income taxes13.4 7.8 12.8 
Provision for income taxes1.0 1.0 1.9 
Net income12.4 %6.8 %10.9 %

Revenues by Segment
 Fiscal 2023Fiscal 2022Fiscal 2021
 (In thousands)
Probe Cards$497,903 $591,422 $633,281 
Systems(1)
165,199 156,515 136,393 
Total$663,102 $747,937 $769,674 

(1) During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023, we completed the sale of our FRT business. As a result, Metrology Systems revenue will not recur in future periods. The year ended December 30, 2023 includes Metrology Systems revenue of $21.2 million. The years ended December 31, 2022 and December 25, 2021 include Metrology Systems revenue of $29.0 million and $23.7 million, respectively.
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Revenues by Market
Fiscal% ofFiscal% ofChange
2023Revenues2022Revenues$%
(In thousands, except percentages)
Probe Cards Markets:
Foundry & Logic$363,539 54.8 %$409,196 54.7 %$(45,657)(11.2)%
DRAM113,779 17.2 133,446 17.8 (19,667)(14.7)
Flash20,585 3.1 48,780 6.5 (28,195)(57.8)
Systems Market:
Systems(1)
165,199 24.9 156,515 21.0 8,684 5.5 
Total revenues$663,102 100.0 %$747,937 100.0 %$(84,835)(11.3)%

Fiscal% ofFiscal% ofChange
2022Revenues2021Revenues$%
(In thousands, except percentages)
Probe Cards Markets:
Foundry & Logic$409,196 54.7 %$435,812 56.6 %$(26,616)(6.1)%
DRAM133,446 17.8 156,049 20.3 (22,603)(14.5)
Flash48,780 6.5 41,420 5.4 7,360 17.8 
Systems Market:
Systems156,515 21.0 136,393 17.7 20,122 14.8 
Total revenues$747,937 100.0 %$769,674 100.0 %$(21,737)(2.8)%

(1) During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023, we completed the sale of our FRT business. As a result, Metrology Systems revenue will not recur in future periods. The year ended December 30, 2023 includes Metrology Systems revenue of $21.2 million. The years ended December 31, 2022 and December 25, 2021 include Metrology Systems revenue of $29.0 million million and $23.7 million, respectively.

Foundry & Logic The decrease in Foundry & Logic product revenue in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was driven by the weakening demand in the semiconductor industry, especially in the personal computer and mobile sectors, that began in the third quarter of fiscal 2022 and continued into fiscal 2023, resulting in decreased unit sales across several of our major customers for both us and our competitors.

DRAM The decrease in DRAM product revenues in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was driven by lower customer production activity and demand for our products in light of worldwide excess supply of DRAM chips, along with weaker demand in the overall semiconductor industry, as discussed above. These declines were partially offset due to increased demand for HBM chips utilized in generative artificial intelligence applications.

Flash The decrease in Flash product revenue in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was driven by lower customer production activity and demand for our products in light of worldwide excess supply, a result of weaker demand in the overall semiconductor industry, as discussed above, and Flash market weakness.

Systems The increase in Systems product revenue in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was driven by increased sales of probe stations and thermal systems, partially offset by decreased sales of our metrology systems.

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Revenues by Geographic Region
Fiscal 2023% of
Revenues
Fiscal 2022% of
Revenues
Fiscal 2021% of
Revenues
(In thousands, except percentages)
United States$171,781 25.9 %$127,730 17.1 %$122,147 15.9 %
Taiwan147,842 22.3 169,789 22.7 185,925 24.2 
South Korea117,747 17.8 111,419 14.9 123,463 16.0 
China91,736 13.8 160,668 21.5 163,069 21.2 
Europe38,858 5.9 39,246 5.2 43,705 5.7 
Japan36,791 5.5 38,419 5.1 36,504 4.7 
Malaysia26,601 4.0 50,067 6.7 49,485 6.4 
Singapore18,335 2.8 39,388 5.3 36,197 4.7 
Rest of World13,411 2.0 11,211 1.5 9,179 1.2 
Total Revenues$663,102 100.0 %$747,937 100.0 %$769,674 100.0 %

Geographic revenue information is based on the location to which we ship the product. For example, if a certain South Korean customer purchases through their U.S. subsidiary and requests the products to be shipped to an address in South Korea, this sale will be reflected in the revenue for South Korea rather than U.S.

Changes in revenue by geographic region in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 were primarily attributable to changes in customer demand, shifts in customer regional manufacturing strategies, particularly with our large multinational customers, and product sales mix. More specifically, the increase in revenues for the United States, and decreases in revenues for China and Malaysia, were driven principally by a single large U.S.-based company with operations in these regions that shifted shipments from these regions to the United States. We expect the trade restrictions to continue to drive multinational customers to concentrate operations in regions other than China, impacting our geographical mix. The decrease in revenues for China was also impacted by lowered demand from a large Chinese DRAM integrated device manufacturer and the impact of expanded export license requirements imposed by the U.S. government beginning the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022 for exporting advanced U.S. semiconductor technology to China. These uncertain trade barriers affecting exports and imports between the United States and China contributed to the Company's decision to proceed with the China Transaction.

Cost of Revenues and Gross Margins
Cost of revenues consists primarily of manufacturing materials, compensation and benefits, shipping and handling costs, manufacturing-related overhead (including equipment costs, related occupancy, and computer services), warranty adjustments, inventory adjustments (including write-downs for inventory obsolescence), and amortization of certain intangible assets. Our manufacturing operations rely on a limited number of suppliers to provide key components and materials for our products, some of which are a sole source. We order materials and supplies based on backlog and forecasted customer orders. Tooling and setup costs related to changing manufacturing lots at our suppliers are also included in the cost of revenues. We expense all warranty costs, inventory provisions and amortization of certain intangible assets as cost of revenues.

Gross profit and gross margin by segment were as follows (dollars in thousands):
Fiscal 2023
Probe CardsSystemsCorporate and OtherTotal
Gross profit$185,392 $84,735 $(11,547)$258,580 
Gross margin37.2 %51.3 %39.0 %
Fiscal 2022
Probe CardsSystemsCorporate and OtherTotal
Gross profit$235,562 $80,937 $(20,490)$296,009 
Gross margin39.8 %51.7 %39.6 %
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Fiscal 2021
Probe CardsSystemsCorporate and OtherTotal
Gross profit$279,873 $65,834 $(22,940)$322,767 
Gross margin44.2 %48.3 %41.9 %

Probe CardsGross profit and gross margin in the Probe Cards segment decreased in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022, primarily due to lower revenues and unfavorable absorption of costs on these lower production volumes, partially offset by lower inventory excess and obsolescence reserves.

SystemsGross profit and gross margin in the Systems segment remained relatively flat in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022, despite the increase in revenue primarily as a result of less favorable product mix.

Corporate and OtherCorporate and Other includes unallocated expenses relating to amortization of intangible assets, inventory, fixed asset, and deferred revenue fair value adjustments due to acquisitions, stock-based compensation, and restructuring charges, net, which are not used in evaluating the results of, or in allocating resources to, our reportable segments. The reduction in Corporate and Other in fiscal 2023, compared to fiscal 2022, is primarily due to a reduction in restructuring charges, partially offset by the increase in stock-based compensation expense. In fiscal 2022, there was $11.8 million in restructuring charges arising from a change in estimate of excess and obsolete inventories and a headcount reduction targeted at aligning our cost structure with reduced demand levels within the Probe Cards segment.

OverallGross profit and gross margin fluctuate with revenue levels, product mix, selling prices, factory loading and material costs. For fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022, gross profit and gross margins have decreased on lower revenue levels and unfavorable absorption of costs on lower production volumes, partially offset by a reduction of restructuring charges.

Stock-based compensation expense included in cost of revenues for fiscal 2023 and 2022 was $6.9 million and $3.8 million, respectively. The increase of stock-based compensation in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was driven by an increase in weighted average fair value of awards outstanding and the timing of awards.
Research and Development
Fiscal Year Ended
December 30, 2023December 31, 2022$ Change% Change
(Dollars in thousands)
Research and development$115,765 $109,222 $6,543 6.0 %
% of revenues17.5 %14.6 %
Fiscal Year Ended
December 31, 2022December 25, 2021$ Change% Change
(Dollars in thousands)
Research and development$109,222 $100,937 $8,285 8.2 %
% of revenues14.6 %13.1 %

The increase in research and development expense in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was primarily driven by an increase in headcount designed to support our continued investment in technology leadership. Increased stock-based compensation, depreciation, and general operational costs, also contributed to the increase. These increases were partially offset by lower performance-based compensation and restructuring charges.

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The components of this increase were as follows (in thousands):
Fiscal 2023 compared to Fiscal 2022
Employee compensation costs$3,861 
Stock-based compensation2,435 
Depreciation892 
General operational costs562 
Restructuring charges(1,207)
$6,543 

Stock-based compensation expense included within research and development in fiscal 2023 and 2022 was $10.7 million and $8.2 million, respectively. The increase of stock-based compensation expense in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was driven by an increase in weighted average fair value of awards outstanding and the timing of awards.
Selling, General and Administrative
Fiscal Year Ended
December 30, 2023December 31, 2022$ Change% Change
(Dollars in thousands)
Selling, general and administrative$133,012 $131,875 $1,137 0.9 %
% of revenues20.1 %17.6 %
Fiscal Year Ended
December 31, 2022December 25, 2021$ Change% Change
(Dollars in thousands)
Selling, general and administrative$131,875 $123,792 $8,083 6.5 %
% of revenues17.6 %16.1 %

The increase in selling, general and administrative expense in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was primarily driven by increased general operating expenses, increased costs from the sale of our FRT business, higher stock-based compensation expense, and higher consulting costs, partially offset by lower employee compensation from decreased headcount and lower performance-based compensation, lower amortization of intangibles, and lower restructuring charges.

The components of this overall increase were as follows (in thousands):
Fiscal 2023 compared to Fiscal 2022
General operating expenses$2,428 
Sale of business2,407 
Stock-based compensation1,797 
Consulting fees1,339 
Restructuring charges(1,274)
Amortization of intangibles(2,396)
Employee compensation(3,164)
$1,137 

Stock-based compensation expense included within selling, general and administrative in fiscal 2023 and 2022 was $21.1 million and $19.3 million, respectively. The increase of stock-based compensation in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was driven by an increase in weighted average fair value of awards outstanding and the timing of awards.

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Gain on sale of business
Gain on sale of business represents the gain on the sale of our FRT business of $73.0 million during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023. See Note 5, Divestiture, for additional information.

Interest Income and Interest Expense
Interest income is earned on our cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and marketable securities. The increase in interest income in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was attributable to an increase in investment yields due to the higher interest rate environment as well as an increased average invested balance.

Interest expense primarily includes interest on our term loan, interest rate swap derivative contract, and term loan issuance costs amortization charges. The decrease in interest expense in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was primarily due to lower outstanding debt balances.

Other income (expense), net
Other income (expense), net, includes the effects of foreign currency and various other gains and losses. The decrease in Other income (expense), net, in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was primarily attributable to an other than temporary impairment on a debt receivable for $1.1 million and a decrease in foreign exchange gains. Foreign exchange gains for fiscal 2023 were $0.6 million.

Provision for income taxes
Fiscal Year Ended
December 30, 2023December 31, 2022December 25, 2021
(Dollars in thousands)
Provision for income taxes$6,880 $7,132 $14,576 
Effective tax rate7.7 %12.3 %14.8 %

Provision for income taxes reflects the tax provision on our operations in foreign and U.S. jurisdictions, offset by tax benefits from tax credits and the foreign-derived intangible income (“FDII”) deduction. Our effective tax rate may vary from period to period based on changes in estimated taxable income or loss by jurisdiction, changes to the valuation allowance, changes to U.S. federal, state or foreign tax laws, changes in stock-based compensation expense/benefit, future expansion into areas with varying country, state, and local income tax rates, and deductibility of certain costs and expenses by jurisdiction.

The decrease in our effective tax rate for the fiscal year ended December 30, 2023, when compared to the corresponding period in the prior year, was primarily driven by the sale of our FRT business and the related capital gain exclusion for German tax purposes. This significant benefit was offset by other items impacting the effective tax rate at a different percentage amount than the prior year due to increased income before taxes in fiscal 2023.

The Creating Helpful Incentives to Produce Semiconductors and Science Act of 2022 (the “CHIPS Act”) was signed into law on August 9, 2022. The CHIPS Act provides for various incentives and tax credits, among other items, including the Advanced Manufacturing Investment Credit (“AMIC”), which equals 25% of qualified investments in an advanced manufacturing facility that is placed in service after December 31, 2022. At least a portion of our future capital expenditures and research and development costs will qualify for this credit, which benefits us by allowing us to net the credit received against our costs. The AMIC credit is accounted for outside of ASC 740 as a reduction to the depreciable basis of the assets used in operations and will not have an impact on our effective tax rate.

Beginning in 2022, the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 eliminated the existing option to deduct research and development expenditures and requires taxpayers to amortize such expenditures attributable to domestic and foreign research over five and fifteen years, respectively, pursuant to IRC Section 174. While the capitalization requirement has a negative impact on our cash flows, there are offsetting benefits from the enactment of this provision that we have included in our estimated annual effective tax rate. While it is possible that Congress may defer, modify, or repeal this provision, potentially with retroactive effect, we have no assurance that this provision will be deferred, modified, or repealed. Changes in our tax provisions or an increase in our tax liabilities, whether due to changes in applicable laws and regulations, the interpretation or application thereof, or a final determination of tax audits or litigation or agreements, could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.

34


Liquidity and Capital Resources

Capital Resources
Our working capital increased to $442.7 million at December 30, 2023 compared to $324.9 million at December 31, 2022.

Cash and cash equivalents primarily consist of deposits held at banks, money market funds, and U.S. treasuries. Marketable securities primarily consist of corporate bonds, U.S. treasuries and agency securities, and commercial paper. We typically invest in highly-rated securities with low probabilities of default. Our investment policy requires investments to be rated single A or better, and limits the types of acceptable investments, issuer concentration and duration of the investment.

Our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities totaled approximately $328.3 million at December 30, 2023 compared to $238.1 million at December 31, 2022. Based on our historical results of operations, we expect that our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities on hand, and the cash we expect to generate from operations, will be sufficient to fund, through at least the next 12 months, our liquidity requirements including those arising from: research and development, capital expenditures, working capital, outstanding commitments, and other liquidity requirements associated with existing operations. However, we cannot be certain that our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities on hand, and cash generated from operations, will be available in the future to fund all of our capital and operating requirements. In addition, any future strategic investments and significant acquisitions may require additional cash and capital resources. To the extent necessary, we may consider entering into short and long-term debt obligations, raising cash through a stock issuance, or obtaining new financing facilities, which may not be available on terms favorable to us. If we are unable to obtain sufficient cash or capital to meet our needs on a timely basis and on favorable terms, our business and operations could be materially and adversely affected.

If we are unsuccessful in maintaining or growing our revenues, maintaining or reducing our cost structure, or increasing our available cash through debt or equity financings, our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities may decline.

We utilize a variety of tax planning and financing strategies in an effort to manage our worldwide cash and deploy funds to locations where they are needed. As part of these strategies, we indefinitely reinvest a portion of our foreign earnings. Should we require additional capital in the United States, we may elect to repatriate indefinitely-reinvested foreign funds or raise capital in the United States.

Cash Flows
Fiscal Year Ended
December 30, 2023December 31, 2022December 25, 2021
(Dollars in thousands)
Net cash provided by operating activities$64,602 $131,786 $139,364 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities29,049 (75,704)(124,741)
Net cash used in financing activities(22,711)(95,932)(47,199)

Operating Activities 
Net cash provided by operating activities consists of net income for the period adjusted for certain non-cash items and changes in certain operating assets and liabilities. The $67.2 million decrease in cash provided by operating activities for fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, was primarily related to decreased net income, after adjusting for the impact from the $73.0 million gain recognized on the sale of our FRT business, and an investment in working capital of $14.1 million, due primarily to higher accounts receivable and lower deferred revenue that were partially offset by an increase from a deferred grant of $18.0 million and lower inventories. In January 2023, we received $18.0 million in cash from a California Competes Grant awarded from the California Governor’s Office of Business and Economic Development, subject to job creation and other commitments over a 5-year term. See Note 2, Government Assistance, of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Net cash provided by operating activities in fiscal 2023 was primarily attributable to net income of $82.4 million and net non-cash items of $14.4 million, which include depreciation, amortization, stock-based compensation, and the provision for excess and obsolete inventories, partially offset by the adjustment for the $73.0 million gain from the sale of our FRT business. Net working capital resulted in an outflow of $32.2 million, primarily related to an increase in accounts receivable of $23.3 million, a decrease in deferred revenues of $10.2 million, an increase in inventories of $9.5 million, and a reduction in operating lease liabilities of $7.6 million, partially offset by an increase from a deferred grant of $18.0 million.

35


Investing Activities
Net cash provided by investing activities in fiscal 2023 primarily related to $101.8 million cash provided by the sale of our FRT business, partially offset by $56.0 million of cash used in the acquisition of property, plant and equipment and $16.7 million used for the purchase of marketable securities, net of maturities.

Financing Activities
Net cash used in financing activities in fiscal 2023 primarily related to $19.8 million used to purchase common stock under our stock repurchase program, $10.7 million used to pay tax withholdings for net share settlements of employee equity awards, and $1.0 million of principal payments made towards the repayment of our term loan, partially offset by $8.8 million of proceeds received from issuances of common stock under our stock incentive plans.

Debt

On June 22, 2020, we entered into an $18.0 million 15-year credit facility loan agreement (the “Building Term Loan”) with MUFG Union Bank, National Association (“Union Bank”). The proceeds of the Building Term Loan were used to purchase a building adjacent to our leased facilities in Livermore, California. On May 19, 2023, we amended the Building Term Loan, replacing the benchmark reference rate LIBOR with SOFR, with no change to the amount or timing of contractual cash flows.

The Building Term Loan bears interest at a rate equal to the applicable SOFR rate, plus 0.1148%, plus 1.75% per annum. Interest payments are payable in monthly installments over a fifteen-year period. The interest rate at December 30, 2023, before consideration of the interest rate swap, was 7.20%.

On March 17, 2020, we entered into an interest rate swap agreement with Union Bank to hedge the interest payments on the Building Term Loan for the notional amount of $18.0 million. As future levels of LIBOR over the life of the loan were uncertain, we entered into this interest-rate swap agreement to hedge the exposure in interest rate risks associated with movement in LIBOR rates. This agreement was amended on May 19, 2023 to replace the benchmark reference rate LIBOR with SOFR to match the Building Term Loan agreement (as amended). After the amendment, the interest rate swap continues to convert our floating-rate interest into a fixed-rate of 2.75%. As of December 30, 2023, the notional amount of the loan that is subject to this interest rate swap was $14.4 million. See Note 10, Fair Value, for additional information.

The obligations under the Building Term Loan are guaranteed by a deed of trust covering certain real property and improvements and certain personal property used in connection therewith. The deed of trust creates a first priority lien or encumbrance on the property with only such exceptions as may be approved by Union Bank in writing.

The Building Term Loan contains covenants customary for financing of this type. As of December 30, 2023, the balance outstanding pursuant to the Building Term Loan was $14.4 million, and we were in compliance with all covenants under the agreement.

Stock Repurchase Programs

On October 26, 2020, our Board of Directors authorized a two-year program to repurchase up to $50 million of outstanding common stock to offset potential dilution from issuances of common stock under our stock-based compensation programs. During fiscal 2021 and 2022, we repurchased and retired 622,400 shares of common stock for $24.0 million and 676,408 shares of common stock for $26.0 million, respectively, utilizing the remaining shares available for repurchase under the program.

On May 20, 2022, our Board of Directors authorized a two-year program to repurchase up to $75 million of outstanding common stock to offset potential dilution from issuance of common stock under our stock-based compensation programs. During fiscal 2022 and 2023, we repurchased and retired 1,700,893 shares of common stock for $56.4 million and 504,352 shares of common stock for $18.6 million, respectively, utilizing the remaining shares available for repurchase under the program.

On October 30, 2023, our Board of Directors authorized an additional program to repurchase up to $75 million of outstanding common stock, also with the primary purpose of offsetting potential dilution from issuance of common stock under our stock-based compensation programs. This share repurchase program will expire on October 30, 2025. During fiscal 2023, we repurchased and retired 32,020 shares of common stock for $1.2 million and as of December 30, 2023 $73.8 million remained available for future repurchases.

36


Contractual Obligations and Commitments

The following table summarizes our significant contractual commitments to make future payments in cash under contractual obligations as of December 30, 2023 (in thousands):
Payments Due In Fiscal Year
202420252026202720282029 and thereafterTotal
Operating leases$9,337 $9,215 $7,586 $7,154 $3,870 $1,432 $38,594 
Term loan - principal payments1,080 1,111 1,142 1,175 1,208 8,732 14,448 
Term loan - interest payments(1)
1,025 937 857 773 688 2,163 6,443 
Total $11,442 $11,263 $9,585 $9,102 $5,766 $12,327 $59,485 

(1) Represents our minimum interest payment commitments at 7.20% per annum, excluding the interest rate swap described in Debt, above.

The table above excludes our gross liability for unrecognized tax benefits and our deferred grant. The gross liability for unrecognized tax benefits was $45.6 million as of December 30, 2023. The timing of any payments which could result from these unrecognized tax benefits will depend upon a number of factors and, accordingly, the timing of payment cannot be estimated. The deferred grant was $18.0 million as of December 30, 2023. The timing of any potential repayments is dependent upon a number of factors, including the number of employees and capital investments. Accordingly, the timing of any repayment cannot be estimated.

Indemnification Arrangements

We have entered, and may from time to time in the ordinary course of our business enter, into contractual arrangements with third parties that include indemnification obligations. Under these contractual arrangements, we have agreed to defend, indemnify and/or hold the third party harmless from and against certain liabilities. These arrangements include indemnities in favor of customers in the event that our products or services infringe a third party's intellectual property, or cause property damage or other indemnities in favor of our lessors in connection with facility leasehold liabilities that we may cause. In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and certain of our officers, and our bylaws contain indemnification obligations in favor of our directors, officers and agents. These indemnity arrangements may limit the type of the claim, the total amount that we can be required to pay in connection with the indemnification obligation and the time within which an indemnification claim can be made. The duration of the indemnification obligation may vary, and for most arrangements, survives the agreement term and is indefinite. We believe that substantially all of our indemnity arrangements provide either for limitations on the maximum potential future payments we could be obligated to make, or for limitations on the types of claims and damages we could be obligated to indemnify, or both. However, it is not possible to determine or reasonably estimate the maximum potential amount of future payments under these indemnification obligations due to the varying terms of such obligations, a lack of history of prior indemnification claims, the unique facts and circumstances involved in each particular contractual arrangement and in each potential future claim for indemnification, and the contingency of any potential liabilities upon the occurrence of events that are not reasonably determinable. We have not had any material requests for indemnification under these arrangements. We have not recorded any liabilities for these indemnification arrangements on our Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 30, 2023 or December 31, 2022.

New Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 18, New Accounting Pronouncements, of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Item 7A:    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

We conduct certain operations in foreign currencies. We enter into currency forward exchange contracts to hedge a portion, but not all, of existing foreign currency denominated amounts. Gains and losses on these contracts are generally recognized in Other income (expense), net in our Consolidated Statements of Income. Because the effect of movements in currency exchange rates on the currency forward exchange contracts generally offsets the related effect on the underlying items being hedged, these financial instruments are not expected to subject us to risks that would otherwise result from changes in currency exchange rates as of December 30, 2023. We do not use derivative financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
37


We recognized a net gain from foreign exchange of $0.6 million, $1.1 million, and zero in fiscal 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively.

Interest Rate Sensitivity

Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our investment portfolio. We invest in a number of securities including U.S. treasuries, U.S. agency discount notes, money market funds, corporate bonds, and commercial paper. We attempt to maintain the safety and preservation of our invested principal funds by limiting default risk, market risk and reinvestment risk. We mitigate default risk by investing in high grade investment securities. By policy, we limit the amount of credit exposure to an issuer, except U.S. treasuries and U.S. agencies.

Our exposure to interest rate risk arising from our Term Loan (see Note 6, Debt, of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements) is insignificant as a result of the interest-rate swap agreement (see Note 9, Derivative Financial Instruments, of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements) that we entered into with Union Bank to hedge the interest payments on our Building Term Loan.

We use interest rate derivative instruments to manage certain interest rate exposures. We do not use derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes. The fair market value of our fixed rate securities may be adversely impacted by increases in interest rates while income earned on floating rate securities may decline as a result of decreases in interest rates. A hypothetical 100 basis-point (one percentage point) increase or decrease in interest rates compared to rates at December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 would have affected the fair value of our investment portfolio by $2.5 million and $2.1 million, respectively.

Item 8:    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

Consolidated Financial Statements

The consolidated financial statements and supplementary data required by this item are included in the section entitled “Consolidated Financial Statements” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. See Part VI, Item 15 for a list of our consolidated financial statements.

Item 9:    Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

None.

Item 9A:    Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Based on our management’s evaluation (with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer), as of the end of the period covered by this report, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the “Exchange Act”)) were effective as of December 30, 2023 to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in Securities and Exchange Commission rules and forms and is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
 
There have been no changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that occurred during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed by, or under the supervision of, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, and effected by our board of directors,
38


management and other personnel and consultants, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and includes those policies and procedures that:
(i)    pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect our transactions and dispositions of assets;
(ii)    provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that our receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with the authorization of our management and directors; and
(iii)    provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 30, 2023. In making this assessment, our management used the criteria set forth in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”). Based on the results of this assessment, management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 30, 2023.

The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 30, 2023 has been audited by KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which appears in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Limitations on the Effectiveness of Controls

Control systems, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control systems’ objectives are being met. Further, the design of any control systems must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints, and the benefits of all controls must be considered relative to their costs. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within our company have been detected. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision making can be faulty and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake. Control systems can also be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people, or by management override of the controls. The design of any system of controls is based, in part, on certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions. Over time, controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions or deterioration in the degree of compliance with policies or procedures.

CEO and CFO Certifications

We have attached as exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 10-K the certifications of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, which are required in accordance with the Exchange Act. We recommend that this Item 9A be read in conjunction with the certifications for a more complete understanding of the subject matter presented.

Item 9B:    Other Information

Insider Trading Arrangements

During the quarter ended December 30, 2023, none of our directors or officers (as defined in Rule 16a-1(f) of the Exchange Act) adopted or terminated a “Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangement” or “non-Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangement” (as those terms are defined in Item 408 of Regulation S-K), except as follows:

Dr. Mike Slessor, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, adopted a Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangement on November 20, 2023. Under this arrangement, a total of 84,002 shares of our common stock may be sold, subject to certain conditions, after March 1, 2024 and before the arrangement expires on November 5, 2025.

The above arrangement is intended to satisfy the affirmative defense conditions of Rule 10b5-1(c) of the Exchange Act.

39


Item 9C:    Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

None.
40



PART III

Item 10:    Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the proxy statement for our 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders under the captions Corporate Governance, Executive Officers, and, if applicable, Delinquent Section 16 Reports.

Item 11:    Executive Compensation

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the proxy statement for our 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders under the captions Executive Compensation and Related Information, Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation and Report of the Compensation Committee.

Item 12:    Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the proxy statement for our 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders under the captions Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters, and Equity Compensation Plans.

Item 13:    Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the proxy statement for our 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders under the captions Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Independence of Directors.

Item 14:    Principal Accountant Fees and Services

Our independent registered public accounting firm is KPMG, LLP; Portland, Oregon; Auditor Firm ID: 185.

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the proxy statement for our 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders under the caption Principal Auditor Fees and Services.


41


PART IV

Item 15:    Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

Financial Statements and Schedules

The Consolidated Financial Statements, together with the report thereon of KPMG LLP, are included on the pages indicated below:
Page
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022
Consolidated Statements of Income for the fiscal years ended December 30, 2023, December 31, 2022 and December 25, 2021
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the fiscal years ended December 30, 2023, December 31, 2022 and December 25, 2021
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity for the fiscal years ended December 30, 2023, December 31, 2022 and December 25, 2021
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the fiscal years ended December 30, 2023, December 31, 2022 and December 25, 2021
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

Financial statement schedules have been omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is shown in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto.

Exhibits

The exhibits listed in the accompanying index to exhibits are filed or incorporated by reference as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 16: Form 10-K Summary

None.
42



EXHIBIT INDEX
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit
Number
Exhibit DescriptionFormFile NoDate of
First Filing
Exhibit
Number
Filed
Herewith
Certificate of Amendment of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of FormFactor, Inc.8-K000-503076/3/20223.1 
Restated Certificate of Incorporation of FormFactor, Inc.8-K000-503076/3/20223.2 
Amended and Restated By-laws of FormFactor, Inc.8-K000-503076/3/20223.3 
Specimen Common Stock CertificateS-1/A333-867385/28/20024.01 
Description of Securities10-K000-503072/22/20214.2 
Form of Indemnity AgreementS-1/A333-867385/28/200210.01 
Form of Change of Control Severance Agreement8-K000-503077/26/202210.1 
Employee Incentive Plan, as amended and restated effective January 25, 2022
— — — — X
Equity Incentive Plan, as amended and restated effective May 27, 2022DEF 14A000-503074/13/2022Appendix B
Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as amended and restated May 19, 2023
DEF 14A000-503074/4/2023
Appendix A
Pacific Corporate Center Lease (Building 1) by and between Greenville Holding Company LLC (successor to Greenville Investors, L.P.) (“Greenville”) and the Registrant dated May 3, 2001S-1/A333-867386/10/200310.18  
First Amendment to Pacific Corporate Center Lease (Building 1) by and between Greenville and the Registrant dated January 31, 2003S-1/A333-867385/7/200310.18.1 
Pacific Corporate Center Lease (Building 2) by and between Greenville and the Registrant dated May 3, 2001S-1/A333-867386/10/200310.19 
First Amendment to Pacific Corporate Center Lease (Building 2) by and between Greenville and the Registrant dated January 31, 2003S-1/A333-867385/7/200310.19.1
Pacific Corporate Center Lease (Building 3) by and between Greenville and the Registrant dated May 3, 2001S-1/A333-867386/10/200310.20 
First Amendment to Pacific Corporate Center Lease (Building 3) by and between Greenville and the Registrant dated January 31, 2003S-1/A333-867385/7/200310.20.1
Third Amendment, dated December 19, 2016, between FormFactor, Inc. and MOHR PCC, LP, to Pacific Corporate Center Leases (Buildings 1, 2 and 3), dated May 3, 2001, by and between Greenville Investors, L.P. and FormFactor, Inc., as amended8-K000-5030712/23/201610.2 
Pacific Corporate Center Lease by and between Greenville and the Registrant dated September 7, 2004, as amended by First Amendment to Building 6 Lease dated August 16, 200610-Q000-5030711/7/200610.01 
Second Amendment, dated December 19, 2016, between FormFactor, Inc. and MOHR PCC, LP, to Pacific Corporate Center Lease, dated October 5, 2004, by and between Greenville Investors, L.P. and FormFactor, Inc., as amended8-K000-5030712/23/201610.1 
Third Amendment, dated October 1, 2018, between FormFactor, Inc. and MOHR PCC, LP, to Pacific Corporate Center Lease, dated October 5, 2004, by and between Greenville Investors, L.P. and FormFactor, Inc., as amended8-K000-5030710/2/201810.1 
Fourth Amendment, dated October 1, 2018, between FormFactor, Inc. and MOHR PCC, LP, to Pacific Corporate Center Lease, dated October 5, 2004, by and between Greenville Investors, L.P. and FormFactor, Inc., as amended8-K000-5030710/2/201810.2 
Rental Agreement by and between Cascade Microtech Dresden GmbH and Süss Grundstücksverwaltungs GbR dated as of June 17, 2011.10-Q000-510728/10/201110.3 
First Amendment to Lease dated January 10, 2007, between Nimbus Center LLC (as successor in interest to Spieker Properties, L.P.) and Cascade Microtech, Inc.10-Q000-510725/9/201410.1 
Second Amendment to Lease dated February 25, 2013, between Nimbus Center LLC and Cascade Microtech, Inc.10-Q000-510725/8/201310.2 
43


Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit
Number
Exhibit DescriptionFormFile NoDate of
First Filing
Exhibit
Number
Filed
Herewith
Third Amendment to Lease dated January 23, 2014, between Nimbus Center LLC and Cascade Microtech, Inc.10-Q000-510725/9/201410.2 
Fourth Amendment to Lease dated March 31, 2014, between Nimbus Center LLC and Cascade Microtech, Inc.10-Q000-510725/9/201410.3 
Fifth Amendment to Lease dated September 24, 2014, between Nimbus Center LLC and Cascade Microtech, Inc.10-K000-510723/7201610.22 
Sixth Amendment to Lease dated July 8, 2015, between Nimbus Center LLC and Cascade Microtech, Inc.10-K000-510723/7201610.23 
Seventh Amendment to Lease dated June 5, 2018, between Nimbus Center LLC and FormFactor Beaverton, Inc.10-K
000-50307
2/24/2023
10.35 
Eighth Amendment to Lease dated December 14, 2022, between Nimbus Center LLC and FormFactor, Inc.10-K
000-50307
2/24/2023
10.36 
Employment Offer Letter, dated August 29, 2012 to Mike Slessor10-K000-503073/13/201310.19+
CEO Change of Control and Severance Agreement, dated July 20, 2022 by and between Mike Slessor and the Registrant8-K000-503077/26/202210.3 
Employment Offer Letter, dated February 15, 2018 to Shai Shahar10-Q000-503075/8/201810.1 
Change of Control Severance Agreement, dated July 20, 2022 by and between Shai Shahar and the Registrant8-K000-503077/26/202210.2 
Share Purchase Agreement by and among Camtek, Ltd. as purchaser and FormFactor GmbH as seller and FormFactor, Inc as Parent and FRT GmbH as Company, dated as of September 17, 2023
10-Q000-5030711/7/202310.01 
List of Registrant's subsidiaries— — — — X
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm - KPMG LLP— — — — X
Power of Attorney (included on the signature page of this Form 10-K)— — — — X
Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to 15 U.S.C. Section 7241, as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002— — — — X
Certification of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to 15 U.S.C. Section 7241, as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002— — — — X
Certification of Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002— — — — X
Incentive Compensation Clawback Policy, effective October 2, 2023
— — — — X
101**
The following financial statements from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 30, 2023, formatted in Inline XBRL: (i) Consolidated Balance Sheets, (ii) Consolidated Statements of Income, (iii) Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income, (iv) Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, and (v) Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, tagged as blocks of text and including detailed tags.
— — — — X
101.SCH**XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document— — — — X
101.CAL**XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document— — — — X
101.DEF**XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document— — — — X
101.LAB**XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document— — — — X
44


Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit
Number
Exhibit DescriptionFormFile NoDate of
First Filing
Exhibit
Number
Filed
Herewith
101.PRE**XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document— — — — X
104 
The cover page from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 30, 2023, formatted in Inline XBRL (included as Exhibit 101).
— — — — X
*    This exhibit shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section, nor shall it be deemed incorporated by reference in any filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any filings.
**    Pursuant to Rule 406T of Regulation S-T, these interactive data files are deemed not filed or part of a registration statement or prospectus for purposes of Sections 11 or 12 of the Securities Act of 1933 or Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and otherwise are not subject to liability.
+    Indicates a management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement.

45


SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
 FORMFACTOR, INC.
Date:February 23, 2024By:/s/ SHAI SHAHAR
  
Shai Shahar
Chief Financial Officer

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
SignatureTitleDate
/s/ MICHAEL D. SLESSOR
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer)
February 23, 2024
Michael D. Slessor
/s/ SHAI SHAHAR
Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)
February 23, 2024
Shai Shahar
/s/ THOMAS ST. DENNISDirectorFebruary 23, 2024
Thomas St. Dennis
/s/ LOTHAR MAIERDirectorFebruary 23, 2024
Lothar Maier
/s/ REBECA OBREGON-JIMENEZDirectorFebruary 23, 2024
Rebeca Obregon-Jimenez
/s/ SHERI RHODESDirectorFebruary 23, 2024
Sheri Rhodes
/s/ KELLEY STEVEN-WAISSDirectorFebruary 23, 2024
Kelley Steven-Waiss
/s/ JORGE TITINGERDirectorFebruary 23, 2024
Jorge Titinger
/s/ BRIAN WHITEDirectorFebruary 23, 2024
Brian White


46


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
FormFactor, Inc.:

Opinions on the Consolidated Financial Statements and Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of FormFactor, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 30, 2023, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). We also have audited the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 30, 2023, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 30, 2023 based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.

Basis for Opinions

The Company’s management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

47


Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Evaluation of inventory excess and obsolescence

As discussed in notes 2 and 3 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s net inventories were $111.7 million as of December 30, 2023, and inventory write-downs totaled $15.0 million for the year ended December 30, 2023. The Company states its inventories at the lower of cost or net realizable value. The Company records an adjustment to the cost basis of inventory when evidence exists that the net realizable value of inventory is lower than its cost, which occurs when the Company has excess and/or obsolete inventory. The Company’s model to estimate the excess and/or obsolete inventory is based on an analysis of existing inventory quantities compared to estimated future consumption. Future consumption is estimated based upon assumptions about how past consumption, recent purchases, backlog or other factors indicate future consumption.

We identified the evaluation of inventory excess and obsolescence as a critical audit matter. Complex auditor judgment was required to evaluate certain assumptions used to estimate future consumption of inventory in the Company’s model, specifically qualitative other factors that have a high degree of subjectivity and are based on the outcome of uncertain future events.

The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls related to the Company’s process to estimate inventory excess and obsolescence. This included controls related to the development of certain assumptions used to estimate future consumption of inventory, including qualitative other factors.We assessed the Company’s assumptions used to estimate future consumption of inventory, including qualitative other factors by:

evaluating historical cumulative write down trends and relevant changes to the overall business environment, including key customers and product lines
evaluating the Company’s ability to accurately estimate future consumption by comparing certain assumptions made in prior year to actual results in the subsequent period
performing inquiries with nonfinancial personnel, including sales and production employees, for a selection of products within inventory for which the Company recorded an adjustment to the cost basis based on qualitative other factors
selecting a sample of products within inventory for which the Company recorded an adjustment to the cost basis based on qualitative other factors and for each sample selection, we inspected internal and/or external information underlying the qualitative other factors and recalculated the Company’s estimate of the cumulative inventory write-downs based on the actual quantity of product on hand compared to the estimate of future consumption.

/s/ KPMG LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2013.
Portland, Oregon
February 23, 2024
48



FORMFACTOR, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
December 30, 2023December 31, 2022
 (In thousands, except share and per share data)
ASSETS  
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$177,812 $109,130 
Marketable securities150,507 129,006 
Accounts receivable, net102,957 88,143 
Inventories, net111,685 123,157 
Restricted cash1,152 1,221 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets29,667 23,895 
Total current assets573,780 474,552 
Restricted cash2,309