Form S-3

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 15, 2014
Registration No. 333-


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 ____________________________

FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 ____________________________

FORMFACTOR, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware
 
13-3711155
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
7005 Southfront Road
Livermore, California 94551
(925) 290-4000
 
(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)
 ____________________________

 
Michael M. Ludwig 
Chief Financial Officer
FormFactor, Inc.
7005 Southfront Road
Livermore, California 94551
(925) 290-4000
 
(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent For Service)
 ____________________________

 
Copy to:
 
 
William M. Kelly
Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP
1600 El Camino Real
California, CA 94025
(650) 752-2000
 
 ____________________________

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. o
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ý
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. o
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer o    Accelerated filer ý
Non-accelerated filer o (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company o
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CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each
Class of Securities
to Be Registered
Amount to Be Registered (1)
Proposed Maximum Offering Price Per Unit
Proposed Maximum Aggregate Offering Price
Amount of
Registration Fee (3)
Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Debt Securities
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Warrants
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Total
(2)
(2)
$150,000,000
$19,320

(1)
An indeterminate amount of securities of each identified class is being registered as may from time to time be offered pursuant to this registration statement at indeterminate prices, along with an indeterminate number of shares that may be issued upon exercise, settlement, exchange or conversion of securities offered or sold hereunder. These securities may also be sold separately, together or as units with the other securities registered hereunder. The securities registered hereunder will have an aggregate offering price that does not exceed $150,000,000 or the equivalent in any other currency, currency unit or units, or composite currency or currencies.

(2)
Not required to be included in accordance with General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3.

(3)
Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) of the rules and regulations under the Securities Act.

The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

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The information contained in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION DATED SEPTEMBER 15, 2014


PROSPECTUS

COMMON STOCK
PREFERRED STOCK
DEBT SECURITIES
WARRANTS
 ____________________________


We may offer from time to time common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and warrants. Specific terms of these securities will be provided in supplements to this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any supplement carefully before you invest.
We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. We may sell the securities directly to you, through agents we select, or through underwriters and dealers we select. If we use agents, underwriters or dealers to sell these securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.
 ____________________________


Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol "FORM." On September 12, 2014, the reported last sale price of our common stock on the NASDAQ Global Market was $7.74 per share. We have not yet determined whether the other securities that may be offered by this prospectus will be listed on any exchange, inter-dealer quotation system or over-the-counter market. If we decide to seek the listing of any such securities upon issuance, the prospectus supplement relating to those securities will disclose the exchange, quotation system or market on which the securities will be listed.
 ____________________________


Investing in these securities involves certain risks. See “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which are incorporated by reference herein.





 ____________________________


Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved these securities, or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is .







We have not authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or in any such free writing prospectus is accurate as of any date other than their respective dates.
Unless otherwise noted, the terms “FormFactor,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to FormFactor, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
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Summary
We design, develop, manufacture, sell and support precision, high performance advanced semiconductor wafer probe card products and solutions. We are the largest probe card manufacturer, and semiconductor manufacturers use our wafer probe cards to perform wafer sort and test on semiconductor die, or chips, prior to wafer singulation. During wafer sort and test, a wafer probe card is mounted on a prober and electrically connected to a semiconductor tester. The wafer probe card is used as an interface to connect electrically with and test individual chips on a wafer. Using our wafer probe cards to test at this stage of the manufacturing process, our customers can reduce their cost of test by identifying defective chips prior to incurring the time and costs of packaging defective chips. We work closely with our customers on product design, as each wafer probe card is a custom product that is specific to the chip and wafer designs of the customer.
Our principal executive offices are located at 7005 Southfront Road, Livermore, California 94551, and our telephone number is (925) 290-4000. We maintain a website at www.formfactor.com where general information about us is available. We are not incorporating the contents of the website into this prospectus.
About this Prospectus
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”


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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any document that we file at the Public Reference Room of the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet site at http://www.sec.gov, from which interested persons can electronically access our SEC filings, including the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules thereto.
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with them, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and all documents we file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (i) after the date of the filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to its effectiveness and (ii) on or after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering under this prospectus and any prospectus supplement (other than, in each case, documents or information deemed to have been furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rules):
(a)
Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 28, 2013;
(b)
Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 27, 2014;
(c)
Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed April 4, 2014;
(d)
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 29, 2014;
(e)
Current Report on Form 8-K filed May 19, 2014; and
(f)
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 28, 2014.
You may request a copy of these filings at no cost, by writing FormFactor, Inc., 7005 Southfront Road, Livermore, California 94551, attention: Investor Relations, by calling us at (925) 290-4000 or by emailing us at ir@formfactor.com.
SPECIAL NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein, contains forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as “may,” “might,” “will,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential” or “continue,” the negative or plural of these words and other comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us, may include projections of our future financial performance, our anticipated growth strategies and anticipated trends in our business. These statements are only predictions based on our current expectations and projections about future events. There are important factors that could cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from the results, level of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements, including those factors discussed under the caption entitled “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 28, 2013.
Although we believe the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, level of activity, performance or achievements. Moreover, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of any of these forward-looking statements. We are under

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no duty to update any of these forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus to conform our prior statements to actual results or revised expectations.
RISK FACTORS
You should carefully consider all of the information in this prospectus and, in particular, you should evaluate the specific risk factors incorporated by reference herein and included or incorporated by reference in any applicable prospectus supplement.
USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, the net proceeds from the sale of the securities will be used for working capital and general corporate purposes, which may include acquisitions, retirement of debt and other business opportunities. We do not have agreements or commitments for any specific acquisitions or investments at this time. Pending such uses, we may also invest the proceeds in certificates of deposit, United States government securities or certain other interest-bearing securities. If we decide to use the net proceeds from a particular offering of securities for a specific purpose, we will describe that in the related prospectus supplement.
RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES
The following table sets forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges for the periods indicated. We did not have any shares of preferred stock outstanding in the periods indicated, so our ratio of earnings to fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for any given period is equivalent to our ratio of earnings to fixed charges.
 
Six Months Ended
Years Ended
 
June 28,
Dec 28,
Dec 29,
Dec 31,
Dec 25,
Dec 26,
 
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
Ratio of earnings to fixed charges (1)
*
*
*
*
*
*
(1) For purposes of calculating our ratios of earnings to fixed charges, earnings consist of income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes, fixed charges and amortization of interest capitalized, less interest capitalized. Fixed charges consist of interest expense, interest capitalized and an estimate of the interest within our rental expense.
(*) Dollar amount of deficiency is the amount of earnings required to attain a ratio of 1:1. Earnings were inadequate to cover fixed charges by $16.8 million for the six months ended June 28, 2014 and by $57.8 million, $62.0 million, $67.9 million, $190.2 million and $142.4 million, respectively, for our 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010 and 2009 fiscal years.
DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK
The following description of our common stock is based upon our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws and applicable provisions of law. We have summarized certain portions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws below. The summary is not complete. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. You should read our certificate of incorporation and bylaws for the provisions that are important to you.

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Certain provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws may have an anti-takeover effect. This may delay, defer or prevent a tender offer or takeover attempt that a securityholder might consider in its best interests, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for shares of our common stock.
Our authorized capital stock consists of 250,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share. As of September 12, 2014, we had outstanding 56,396,729 shares of our common stock and zero shares of our preferred stock and had 218 stockholders of record.
Dividend Rights
Subject to preferences that may apply to shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of outstanding shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of assets legally available at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine from time to time.
Voting Rights
Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share of common stock held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. We have not provided for cumulative voting for the election of directors in our certificate of incorporation. This means that the holders of a majority of the shares voted can elect all of the directors then standing for election. In addition, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that certain actions require the approval of two-thirds, rather than a majority, of the shares entitled to vote. For a description of these actions, see "Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws" below.
No Preemptive, Conversion or Redemption Rights
Our common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights and is not subject to conversion or redemption.
Right to Receive Liquidation Distributions
Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the holders of common stock are entitled to share in all assets remaining after payment of all liabilities and the liquidation preferences of any outstanding preferred stock. Each outstanding share of common stock is, and all shares of common stock to be issued in this offering when they are paid for will be, fully paid and nonassessable.
Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws
Certain provisions of Delaware law and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of us.
Delaware Law
We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law regulating corporate takeovers. In general, Section 203 prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years following the date that the stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless:
• the transaction is approved by the board before the date the interested stockholder attained that status;
• upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced; or
• on or after the date the business combination is approved by the board and authorized at a meeting of stockholders by at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Section 203 defines "business combination" to include the following:

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• any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;
• any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;
• subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;
• any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or
• the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.
In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by any of these entities or persons.
A Delaware corporation may opt out of this provision either with an express provision in its original certificate of incorporation or in an amendment to its certificate of incorporation or bylaws approved by its stockholders. We have not opted out of this provision. Section 203 could prohibit or delay mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts and, accordingly, may discourage attempts to acquire us.
Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that:
• no action can be taken by stockholders except at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders called in accordance with our bylaws, and stockholders may not act by written consent;
• the approval of holders of two-thirds of the shares entitled to vote at an election of directors is required to adopt, amend or repeal our bylaws or amend or repeal the provisions of our certificate of incorporation regarding the election and removal of directors and the ability of stockholders to take action;
• our board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our bylaws;
• stockholders may not call special meetings of the stockholders or fill vacancies on the board;
• our board of directors is divided into three classes serving staggered three-year terms. This means that only one class of directors will be elected at each annual meeting of stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective terms;
• our board of directors is authorized to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval;
• directors may only be removed for cause by the holders of two-thirds of the shares entitled to vote at an election of directors; and
• we will indemnify officers and directors against losses that they may incur in investigations and legal proceedings resulting from their services to us, which may include services in connection with takeover defense measures.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
Listing
Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the trading symbol "FORM."

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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK
Our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations imposed by Delaware law, to issue up to a total of 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, without stockholder approval, unless stockholder approval is required by applicable law or by the rules of a stock exchange or quotation system on which any series of our stock may be listed or quoted. Our board is authorized to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series and to fix the rights, preferences and privileges of the shares of each wholly unissued series and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions. Our board can also increase or decrease the number of shares of any series, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by the stockholders.
This prospectus describes certain general terms and provisions of our preferred stock. When we offer to sell a particular series of preferred stock, we will describe the specific terms of the securities in a supplement to this prospectus. The prospectus supplement will also indicate whether the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to the particular series of preferred stock. The preferred stock will be issued under a certificate of designations relating to each series of preferred stock and is also subject to our certificate of incorporation. The certificate of designations will be filed with the SEC in connection with an offering of preferred stock.
The prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any preferred stock being offered, including:
• the number of shares and designation or title of the shares;
• any liquidation preference per share;
• any date of maturity;
• any redemption, repayment or sinking fund provisions;
• any dividend rate or rates and the dates of payment (or the method for determining the dividend rates or dates of payment);
• any restriction on the repurchase or redemption of shares by us while there is any arrearage in the payment of dividends or sinking fund installments;
• any voting rights;
• if other than the currency of the United States, the currency or currencies, including composite currencies, in which the preferred stock is denominated and/or in which payments will or may be payable;
• the method by which amounts in respect of the preferred stock may be calculated and any commodities, currencies or indices, or value, rate or price, relevant to such calculation;
• whether the preferred stock is convertible or exchangeable and, if so, the securities or rights into which the preferred stock is convertible or exchangeable, and the terms and conditions of conversion or exchange;
• the place or places where dividends and other payments on the preferred stock will be payable; and
• any additional voting, dividend, liquidation, redemption and other rights, preferences, privileges, limitations and restrictions.
All shares of preferred stock offered will be fully paid and non-assessable. Any shares of preferred stock that are issued will have priority over the common stock with respect to dividend or liquidation rights or both.
The transfer agent for each series of preferred stock will be described in the relevant prospectus supplement.


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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
This prospectus describes certain general terms and provisions of debt securities that we may offer. The debt securities may be issued pursuant to, in the case of senior debt securities, a senior indenture, and in the case of subordinated debt securities, a subordinated indenture, in each case in the forms filed as exhibits to this registration statement, which we refer to as the "indentures." The indentures will be entered into between us and a trustee to be named prior to the issuance of any debt securities, which we refer to as the "trustee." The indentures will not limit the amount of debt securities that can be issued thereunder and will provide that the debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series pursuant to the terms of one or more securities resolutions or supplemental indentures creating such series.
We have summarized below the material provisions of the indentures and the debt securities or indicated which material provisions will be described in the related prospectus supplement for any offering of debt securities. These descriptions are only summaries, and you should refer to the relevant indenture for the particular offering of debt securities itself which will describe completely the terms and definitions of the offered debt securities and contain additional information about the debt securities.
All references in this section, "Description of Debt Securities," to "FormFactor," "the company," "we," "us," "the Registrant," "our," or similar words are solely to FormFactor, Inc., and not to its subsidiaries.
Terms
When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the securities in a prospectus supplement. The prospectus supplement will set forth the following terms, as applicable, of the debt securities offered thereby: (1) the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency or composite currency and denominations; (2) the price at which such debt securities will be issued and, if an index formula or other method is used, the method for determining amounts of principal or interest; (3) the maturity date and other dates, if any, on which principal will be payable; (4) whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt; (5) whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination; (6) the interest rate (which may be fixed or variable), if any; (7) the date or dates from which interest will accrue and on which interest will be payable, and the record dates for the payment of interest; (8) the manner of paying principal and interest; (9) the place or places where principal and interest will be payable; (10) the terms of any mandatory or optional redemption by us or any third party including any sinking fund; (11) the terms of any conversion or exchange; (12) the terms of any redemption at the option of holders or put by the holders; (13) any tax indemnity provisions; (14) if the debt securities provide that payments of principal or interest may be made in a currency other than that in which debt securities are denominated, the manner for determining such payments; (15) the portion of principal payable upon acceleration of a Discounted Debt Security (as defined below); (16) whether and upon what terms debt securities may be defeased; (17) any events of default or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in the indentures; (18) provisions for electronic issuance of debt securities or for debt securities in uncertificated form; and (19) any additional provisions or other special terms not inconsistent with the provisions of the indentures, including any terms that may be required or advisable under United States or other applicable laws or regulations, or advisable in connection with the marketing of the debt securities.
Debt securities of any series may be issued as registered debt securities or uncertificated debt securities, in such denominations as specified in the terms of the series.
Securities may be issued under the indentures as Discounted Debt Securities to be offered and sold at a substantial discount from the principal amount thereof. Special United States federal income tax and other considerations applicable thereto will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to such Discounted Debt Securities. "Discounted Debt Security" means a security where the amount of principal due upon acceleration is less than the stated principal amount.
We are not obligated to issue all debt securities of one series at the same time and, unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement, we may reopen a series, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of that series, for the issuance of additional debt securities of that series. Additional debt securities of a particular series will have the same terms and conditions as outstanding debt securities of such series, except for the date of original

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issuance and the offering price, and will be consolidated with, and form a single series with, such outstanding debt securities.

Ranking
The senior debt securities will rank equally with all of our other senior and unsubordinated debt. Our secured debt, if any, will be effectively senior to the senior debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment to all of our present and future senior indebtedness to the extent and in the manner described in the prospectus supplement and as set forth in the board resolution, officer’s certificate or supplemental indenture relating to such offering.
We have only a stockholder's claim on the assets of our subsidiaries. This stockholder's claim is junior to the claims that creditors of our subsidiaries have against our subsidiaries. Holders of our debt securities will be our creditors and not creditors of any of our subsidiaries. As a result, all the existing and future liabilities of our subsidiaries, including any claims of their creditors, will effectively be senior to the debt securities with respect to the assets of our subsidiaries. In addition, to the extent that we issue any secured debt, the debt securities will be effectively subordinated to such secured debt to the extent of the value of the assets securing such secured debt.
The debt securities will be obligations exclusively of FormFactor, Inc. To the extent that our ability to service our debt, including the debt securities, may be dependent upon the earnings of our subsidiaries, our ability to do so will be dependent on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute those earnings to us as dividends, loans or other payments.
Certain Covenants
Any covenants that may apply to a particular series of debt securities will be described in the prospectus supplement relating thereto.
Successor Obligor
The indentures provide that, unless otherwise specified in the securities resolution or supplemental indenture establishing a series of debt securities, we shall not consolidate with or merge into, or transfer all or substantially all of our assets to, any person in any transaction in which we are not the survivor, unless: (1) the person is organized under the laws of the United States or a jurisdiction within the United States, (2) the person assumes by supplemental indenture all of our obligations under the relevant indenture, the debt securities and any coupons, (3) immediately after the transaction no Default (as defined below) exists and (4) we deliver to the trustee an officers' certificate and opinion of counsel stating that the transaction complies with the foregoing requirements. In such event, the successor will be substituted for us, and thereafter all of our obligations under the relevant indenture, the debt securities and any coupons will terminate.
Exchange of Debt Securities
Registered debt securities may be exchanged for an equal aggregate principal amount of registered debt securities of the same series and date of maturity in such authorized denominations as may be requested upon surrender of the registered debt securities at an agency of the company maintained for such purpose and upon fulfillment of all other requirements of such agent.
Default and Remedies
Unless the securities resolution or supplemental indenture establishing the series otherwise provides (in which event the prospectus supplement will so state), an "Event of Default" with respect to a series of debt securities will occur if:
(1) we default in any payment of interest on any debt securities of such series when the same becomes due and payable and the default continues for a period of 30 days;

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(2) we default in the payment of the principal and premium, if any, of any debt securities of such series when the same becomes due and payable at maturity or upon redemption, acceleration or otherwise and such default shall continue for five or more days;
(3) we default in the performance of any of our other agreements applicable to the series and the default continues for 30 days after the notice specified below;
(4) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law (as defined below) that:
(A) is for relief against us in an involuntary case,
(B) appoints a Custodian (as defined below) for us or for all or substantially all of our property, or
(C) orders the liquidation of us, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days;
(5) we pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:
(A) commence a voluntary case,
(B) consent to the entry of an order for relief against us in an involuntary case,
(C) consent to the appointment of a Custodian for us or for all or substantially all of our property, or
(D) make a general assignment for the benefit of our creditors; or
(6) there occurs any other Event of Default provided for in such series.
The term "Bankruptcy Law" means Title 11 of the United States Code or any similar Federal or State law for the relief of debtors. The term "Custodian" means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or a similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.
"Default" means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time would be, an Event of Default. A Default under subparagraph (3) above is not an Event of Default until the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the series notify us of the Default and we do not cure the Default within the time specified after receipt of the notice.
The trustee may require indemnity satisfactory to it before it enforces the indentures or the debt securities of the series. Subject to certain limitations, holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of the series may direct the trustee in its exercise of any trust or power with respect to such series. Except in the case of Default in payment on a series, the trustee may withhold from securityholders of such series notice of any continuing Default if the trustee determines that withholding notice is in the interest of such Securityholders. We are required to furnish the trustee annually a brief certificate as to our compliance with all conditions and covenants under the indentures.
The indentures do not have cross-default provisions. Thus, a default by us on any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, would not constitute an Event of Default.
Amendments and Waivers
The indentures and the debt securities or any coupons of the series may be amended, and any Default may be waived as follows:
Unless the securities resolution or supplemental indenture otherwise provides (in which event the applicable prospectus supplement will so state), the debt securities and the indentures may be amended with the consent of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of all series affected voting as one class. Unless the securities resolution or supplemental indenture otherwise provides (in which event the applicable prospectus supplement will so state), a Default other than a Default in payment on a particular series may be waived with the

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consent of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of the series. However, without the consent of each securityholder affected, no amendment or waiver may (1) change the fixed maturity of or the time for payment of interest on any debt security, (2) reduce the principal, premium or interest payable with respect to any debt security, (3) change the place of payment of a debt security or the currency in which the principal or interest on a debt security is payable, (4) change the provisions for calculating any redemption or repurchase price with respect to any debt security, (5) reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment or waiver, (6) make any change that materially adversely affects the right to convert any debt security, (7) waive any Default in payment of principal of or interest on a debt security or (8) adversely affect any holder's rights with respect to redemption or repurchase of a debt security.
Without the consent of any securityholder, the indentures or the debt securities may be amended to provide for assumption of our obligations to securityholders in the event of a merger or consolidation requiring such assumption; to cure any ambiguity, omission, defect or inconsistency; to conform the terms of the debt securities to the description thereof in the prospectus and prospectus supplement offering such debt securities; to create a series and establish its terms; to provide for assumption of our obligations to securityholders in the event of a merger or consolidation requiring such assumption; to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any securityholder; to add to our covenants; or to make any other change to the indentures so long as no debt securities are outstanding.
Conversion Rights
Any securities resolution or supplemental indenture establishing a series of debt securities may provide that the debt securities of such series will be convertible at the option of the holders thereof into or for our common stock or other equity or debt instruments. The securities resolution or supplemental indenture may establish, among other things, (1) the number or amount of shares of common stock or other equity or debt instruments for which $1,000 aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of the series is convertible, as may be adjusted pursuant to the terms of the relevant indenture and the securities resolution and (2) provisions for adjustments to the conversion rate and limitations upon exercise of the conversion right. The indentures provide that we will not be required to make an adjustment in the conversion rate unless the adjustment would require a cumulative change of at least 1% in the conversion rate. However, we will carry forward any adjustments that are less than 1% of the conversion rate and take them into account in any subsequent adjustment of the conversion rate.
Legal Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance
Debt securities of a series may be defeased in accordance with their terms and, unless the securities resolution or supplemental indenture establishing the terms of the series otherwise provides, as set forth below. We at any time may terminate as to a series all of our obligations (except for certain obligations, including obligations with respect to the defeasance trust and obligations to register the transfer or exchange of a debt security, to replace destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities and coupons and to maintain paying agencies in respect of the debt securities) with respect to the debt securities of the series and any related coupons and the relevant indenture, which we refer to as legal defeasance. We at any time may terminate as to a series our obligations with respect to any restrictive covenants which may be applicable to a particular series, which we refer to as covenant defeasance.
We may exercise our legal defeasance option notwithstanding our prior exercise of our covenant defeasance option. If we exercise our legal defeasance option, a series may not be accelerated because of an Event of Default. If we exercise our covenant defeasance option, a series may not be accelerated by reference to any covenant which may be applicable to a series.
To exercise either defeasance option as to a series, we must (1) irrevocably deposit in trust with the trustee (or another trustee) money or U.S. Government Obligations (as defined below), deliver a certificate from a nationally recognized firm of independent accountants expressing their opinion that the payments of principal and interest when due on the deposited U.S. Government Obligations, without reinvestment, plus any deposited money without investment will provide cash at such times and in such amounts as will be sufficient to pay the principal and interest when due on all debt securities of such series to maturity or redemption, as the case may be and (2) comply with certain other conditions. In particular, we must obtain an opinion of tax counsel that the defeasance will not result in recognition of any gain or loss to holders for federal income tax purposes.

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"U.S. Government Obligations" means direct obligations of the United States or any agency or instrumentality of the United States, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed by the United States, which, in either case, have the full faith and credit of the United States pledged for payment and which are not callable at the issuer's option, or certificates representing an ownership interest in such obligations.
Regarding the Trustee
Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, the trustee will also act as depository of funds, transfer agent, paying agent and conversion agent, as applicable, with respect to the debt securities. We may remove the trustee as the trustee under a given indenture with or without cause if we so notify the trustee three months in advance and if no Default occurs during the three-month period. The indenture trustee may also provide additional unrelated services to us as a depository of funds, registrar, trustee and similar services.
Governing Law
The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by New York law, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is applicable.
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may issue warrants to purchase our debt or equity securities or securities of third parties or other rights, including rights to receive payment in cash or securities based on the value, rate or price of one or more specified commodities, currencies, securities or indices, or any combination of the foregoing. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities and may be attached to, or separate from, such securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent. The terms of any warrants to be issued and a description of the material provisions of the applicable warrant agreement will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the following terms of any warrants in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered:
the title of such warrants;
the aggregate number of such warrants;
the price or prices at which such warrants will be issued;
the currency or currencies in which the price of such warrants will be payable;
the securities or other rights, including rights to receive payment in cash or securities based on the value, rate or price of one or more specified commodities, currencies, securities or indices, or any combination of the foregoing, purchasable upon exercise of such warrants;
the price at which and the currency or currencies in which the securities or other rights purchasable upon exercise of such warrants may be purchased;
the date on which the right to exercise such warrants shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;
if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;
provision for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price of such warrants, if any;
if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which such warrants are issued and the number of such warrants issued with each such security;

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if applicable, the date on and after which such warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;
information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;
if applicable, a discussion of any material United States Federal income tax considerations; and
any other terms of such warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of such warrants.
FORMS OF SECURITIES
Each debt security and warrant will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities or warrants represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.
Global Securities
Registered Global Securities. We may issue the registered debt securities and warrants in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more registered global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by registered global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a registered global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the registered global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.
If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a registered global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.
Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a registered global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in registered global securities.
So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a registered global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the registered global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the registered global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive

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physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that registered global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement, the depositary for the registered global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.
Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities and any payments to holders with respect to warrants represented by a registered global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the registered global security. None of FormFactor, the trustees, the warrant agents or any other agent of FormFactor, agent of the trustees or agent of the warrant agents will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the registered global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.
We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a registered global security, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property to holders on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that registered global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.
If the depositary for any of these securities represented by a registered global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the registered global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a registered global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee or warrant agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the registered global security that had been held by the depositary.

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities being offered hereby in the following manner or any manner specified in a prospectus supplement:
    • directly to purchasers;
    • through agents;
    • through underwriters; and
    • through dealers.
The prospectus supplement will set forth the terms of the offering of such securities, including:
    • the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents and the amounts of securities underwritten or purchased by each of them;
    • the initial public offering price of the securities and the proceeds to us and any discounts, commissions or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
    • any securities exchanges on which the securities may be listed.
We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. Agents, dealers and underwriters may be customers of, engage in transactions with, or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.
If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.
If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.
Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters and dealers may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.
In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.
Any underwriter, agent or dealer utilized in the initial offering of any securities issued hereunder will not confirm sales to accounts over which it exercises discretionary authority without the prior specific written approval of its customer.

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VALIDITY OF SECURITIES
The validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed on for us by Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of FormFactor, Inc. and subsidiaries as of December 28, 2013, and for the year then ended, and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 28, 2013, have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
The financial statements incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 28, 2013 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
The following table sets forth the costs and expenses payable by the Registrant in connection with the sale of the securities being registered hereby.
 
Amount to Be Paid
Registration fee
$
19,320

Printing
 
*

Legal fees and expenses (including Blue Sky fees)
 
*

Trustee fees
 
*

Rating Agency fees
 
*

Accounting fees and expenses
 
*

Miscellaneous
 
*

TOTAL   
$
*


 ____________________________

* Estimated fees and expenses are not presently known. The foregoing sets forth the general categories of fees and expenses (other than underwriting discounts and commissions) that we anticipate we will incur in connection with the offering of securities under this registration statement. An estimate of the aggregate fees and expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being offered will be included in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law provides that a corporation may indemnify directors and officers as well as other employees and individuals against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with any threatened, pending or completed actions, suits or proceedings in which such person is made a party by reason of such person being or having been a director, officer, employee or agent to the Registrant. The Delaware General Corporation Law provides that Section 145 is not exclusive of other rights to which those seeking indemnification may be entitled under any bylaw, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.
Section 102(b)(7) of the Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to provide in its certificate of incorporation that a director of the corporation shall not be personally liable to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) for unlawful payments of dividends or unlawful stock repurchases, redemptions or other distributions, or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit. As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Registrant’s Certificate of Incorporation provides for such limitation of liability.
As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Registrant's bylaws provide that:
• the Registrant is required to indemnify its directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to limited exceptions where indemnification is not permitted by applicable law;

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• the Registrant is required to advance expenses, as incurred, to its directors and officers in connection with a legal proceeding to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to certain limited exceptions; and
• the rights conferred in the bylaws are not exclusive.
In addition, the Registrant has entered into indemnity agreements with each of its current directors and officers. These agreements provide for the indemnification of the Registrant's officers and directors under certain circumstances for all expenses and liabilities incurred in connection with any action or proceeding brought against them by reason of the fact that they are or were agents of the Registrant. At present, there is no pending litigation or proceeding involving a director, officer or employee of the Registrant regarding which indemnification is sought, nor is the Registrant aware of any threatened litigation that may result in claims for indemnification.
The indemnification provisions in the Registrant's certificate of incorporation and bylaws and the indemnity agreements entered into between the Registrant and each of its directors and officers may be sufficiently broad to permit indemnification of the Registrant's directors and officers for liabilities arising under the Securities Act.
The Registrant has obtained directors' and officers' insurance to cover its directors and officers for certain liabilities, including coverage for public securities matters.

Item 16. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
(a)
The following exhibits are filed as part of this Registration Statement:

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Exhibit No.
Document
1.1*
Form of Underwriting Agreement
4.1
Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant as filed with the Delaware Secretary of State on June 17, 2003 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.01 to the Registrant's Form S-1 Registration Statement (File No. 333-109815) filed on October 20, 2003)
4.2
Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.02 to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 25, 2005)
4.3
Form of Senior Debt Indenture between the Registrant and the Trustee
4.4
Form of Subordinated Debt Indenture between the Registrant and the Trustee
4.5
Form of Senior Note (included in Exhibit 4.3)
4.6
Form of Subordinated Note (included in Exhibit 4.4)
4.7*
Form of Warrant Agreement
5.1
Opinion of Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP
12.1
Statement regarding computation of Consolidated Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges
23.1
Consent of KPMG LLP
23.2
Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
23.3
Consent of Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
24.1
Power of Attorney (included on the signature page of the Registration Statement)
25.1**
Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 of the Trustee for the Senior Debt Indenture
25.2**
Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 of the Trustee for the Subordinated Debt Indenture

* To be filed by amendment or on Form 8-K prior to the issuance of the applicable securities.
** To be filed pursuant to Section 305 (b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.
Item 17. Undertakings
(a)
The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)    To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made of securities registered hereby, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)    To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)    To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price

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represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement;
(iii)    To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that paragraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in periodic reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(2)    That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered herein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)    To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)    That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(A)    Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(B)    Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(5)    That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:
The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)    Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

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(ii)    Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii)    The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv)    Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(b)
The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.
(c)
The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(d)
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrants pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrants have been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrants will, unless in the opinion of their counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Livermore, State of California, on September 15, 2014.
FormFactor, Inc.
By:
/s/ MICHAEL M. LUDWIG
 
Michael M. Ludwig
 
Chief Financial Officer


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KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Michael M. Ludwig and Stuart L. Merkadeau, and each of them, the undersigned’s true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power to act separately and full power of substitution and resubstitution, for the undersigned and in the undersigned’s name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and all other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto each said attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or either of them or the undersigned's or their substitute or substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities, in the locations and on the dates indicated.
Signature
Title
Date
/s/ THOMAS ST. DENNIS
Principal Executive Officer and Director
September 15, 2014
Thomas St. Dennis
 
 
/s/ MICHAEL M. LUDWIG
Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer
September 15, 2014
Michael M. Ludwig
 
 
/s/ LOTHAR MAIER
Director
September 15, 2014
Lothar Maier
 
 
/s/ EDWARD ROGAS, JR
Director
September 15, 2014
Edward Rogas, Jr.
 
 
/s/ MICHAEL W. ZELLNER
Director
September 15, 2014
Michael W. Zellner
 
 
/s/ RICHARD DELATEUR
Director
September 15, 2014
Richard DeLateur
 
 
/s/ MICHAEL D. SLESSOR
Director
September 15, 2014
Michael D. Slessor
 
 


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EXHIBIT INDEX
Exhibit No.
Document
1.1*
Form of Underwriting Agreement
4.1
Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant as filed with the Delaware Secretary of State on June 17, 2003 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.01 to the Registrant's Form S-1 Registration Statement (File No. 333-109815) filed on October 20, 2003)
4.2
Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.02 to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 25, 2005)
4.3
Form of Senior Debt Indenture between the Registrant and the Trustee
4.4
Form of Subordinated Debt Indenture between the Registrant and the Trustee
4.5
Form of Senior Note (included in Exhibit 4.3)
4.6
Form of Subordinated Note (included in Exhibit 4.4)
4.7*
Form of Warrant Agreement
5.1
Opinion of Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP
12.1
Statement regarding computation of Consolidated Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges
23.1
Consent of KPMG LLP
23.2
Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
23.3
Consent of Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
24.1
Power of Attorney (included on the signature page of the Registration Statement)
25.1**
Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 of the Trustee for the Senior Debt Indenture
25.2**
Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 of the Trustee for the Subordinated Debt Indenture

* To be filed by amendment or on Form 8-K prior to the issuance of the applicable securities.
** To be filed pursuant to Section 305 (b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.



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Exhibit 4.3



Exhibit 4.3
FORMFACTOR, INC., as Issuer

and


●, as Trustee

INDENTURE


Dated as of ●

Senior Debt Securities


    



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
PAGE
DEFINITIONS
 
 
Section 1.01.  Certain Terms Defined
1
 
 
SECURITIES
 
 
Section 2.01.  Forms Generally
8
Section 2.02.  Form of Trustee’s Certification of Authentication
9
Section 2.03.  Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series
9
Section 2.04.  Authentication and Delivery of Securities
10
Section 2.05.  Execution of Securities
12
Section 2.06.  Certificate of Authentication
12
Section 2.07.  Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest
12
Section 2.08.  Registration, Transfer and Exchange
13
Section 2.09.  Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities
16
Section 2.10.  Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof
17
Section 2.11.  Temporary Securities
17
Section 2.12.  Computation of Interest
17
Section 2.13.  CUSIP Numbers
18
 
 
COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE
 
 
Section 3.01.  Payment of Principal and Interest
18
Section 3.02.  Offices for Payments, etc
18
Section 3.03.  Paying Agents
19
Section 3.04.  Certificate of the Issuer
20
Section 3.05.  List of Securityholders
20
Section 3.06.  Reports by the Issuer
20
Section 3.07.  Corporate Existence
21
Section 3.08.  Restrictions on Mergers, Sales and Consolidations
21
Section 3.09.  Further Assurances
21
 
 
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF
DEFAULT
 
 
Section 4.01.  Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default    
21
Section 4.02.  Collection of Indebtedness by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt
23
Section 4.03.  Application of Proceeds
26
Section 4.04.  Suits for Enforcement
27

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Section 4.05.  Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings
27
Section 4.06.  Limitations on Suits by Securityholder
27
Section 4.07.  Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits    
27
Section 4.08.  Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default
28
Section 4.09.  Control by Securityholders
28
Section 4.10.  Waiver of Past Defaults
28
Section 4.11.  Trustee to Give Notice of Default, But May Withhold in Certain Circumstances
29
Section 4.12.  Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs
29
 
 
CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 
 
Section 5.01.  Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee
29
Section 5.02.  Certain Rights of the Trustee
31
Section 5.03.  Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof
32
Section 5.04.  Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, etc
32
Section 5.05.  Monies Held by Trustee
33
Section 5.06.  Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim
33
Section 5.07.  Right of Trustee to Rely on Officers’ Certificate, etc
33
Section 5.08.  Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee
34
Section 5.09.  Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee
34
Section 5.10.  Acceptance of Appointment by Successor
35
Section 5.11.  Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee
36
Section 5.12.  Reports to the Trustee
36
 
 
CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS
 
 
Section 6.01.  Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders
37
Section 6.02.  Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities; Record Date
37
Section 6.03.  Holders to be Treated as Owners
37
Section 6.04.  Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding
38
Section 6.05.  Right of Revocation of Action Taken
38
 
 
SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES
 
 
Section 7.01.  Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders
39
Section 7.02.  Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders
40
Section 7.03.  Effect of Supplemental Indenture
42

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Section 7.04.  Documents to Be Given to Trustee
42
Section 7.05.  Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures
42
 
 
CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

 
 
Section 8.01.  Issuer May Consolidate, etc., on Certain Terms
42
Section 8.02.  Successor Corporation Substituted
43
 
 
DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE

 
 
Section 9.01.  Defeasance Within One Year of Payment
43
Section 9.02.  Defeasance
44
Section 9.03.  Covenant Defeasance
45
Section 9.04.  Application of Trust Money
46
Section 9.05.  Repayment to Issuer
46
 
 
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
 
 
Section 10.01.  Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers and Directors Exempt from Individual Liability
47
Section 10.02.  Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Securityholders
47
Section 10.03.  Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture
47
Section 10.04.  Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Securityholders
47
Section 10.05.  Officers’ Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to be Contained Therein
48
Section 10.06.  Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays
49
Section 10.07.  Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture with Trust Indenture Act of 1939
49
Section 10.08.  New York Law to Govern
49
Section 10.09.  Counterparts
49
Section 10.10.  Effect of Headings
49
 
 
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES
 
 
Section 11.01.  Applicability of Article
50
Section 11.02.  Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions
50
Section 11.03.  Payment of Securities Called for Redemption
51
Section 11.04.  Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption
52
Section 11.05.  Conversion Arrangement On Call For Redemption
52

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CONVERSION OF SECURITIES
 
 
Section 12.01.  Applicability of Article
53
Section 12.02.  Right of Securityholders to Convert Securities
53
Section 12.03.  Issuance of Shares of Capital Stock on Conversion
54
Section 12.04.  No Payment or Adjustment for Interest or Dividends
54
Section 12.05.  Adjustment of Conversion Rate
55
Section 12.06.  No Fractional Shares to Be Issued
59
Section 12.07.  Preservation of Conversion Rights Upon Consolidation, Merger, Sale or Conveyance
59
Section 12.08.  Notice to Security Holders of a Series Prior to Taking Certain Types of Action
60
Section 12.09.  Covenant to Reserve Shares for Issuance on Conversion of Securities
60
Section 12.10.  Compliance with Governmental Requirements
61
Section 12.11.  Payment of Taxes Upon Certificates for Shares Issued Upon Conversion
61
Section 12.12.  Trustee’s Duties with Respect to Conversion Provisions
61

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THIS INDENTURE, dated as of , between FORMFACTOR, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Issuer”) and ●, a ● corporation, as trustee (the “Trustee”).
W I T N E S S E T H:
WHEREAS, the Issuer has duly authorized the issue from time to time of its senior debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration thereof, the Issuer has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture; and
WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;
NOW, THEREFORE:
In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the Holders thereof, the Issuer and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective Holders from time to time of the Securities as follows:


    



Article 1
DEFINITIONS
Section 1.01.    Certain Terms Defined. The following terms (except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 or the definitions of which in the Securities Act of 1933 are referred to in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, including terms defined therein by reference to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of this Indenture. All accounting terms used herein and not expressly defined shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in accordance with GAAP. The words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision. The terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular.
Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” when used with respect to any specified Person means the power to direct the management and policies of such Person, directly or indirectly, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise; and the terms “controlling” and ”controlled” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.
Authorized Newspaper” means a newspaper in the English language or in an official language of the country of publication, customarily printed on each Business Day, whether or not published on Saturdays, Sundays or holidays, and of general circulation in the place in connection with which the term is used or in the financial community of such place. If, because of temporary suspension of publication or general circulation of any newspaper or for any other reason, it is impossible or impracticable to make any publication of any notice required by this Indenture in the manner herein provided, such publication or other notice in lieu thereof which is made at the written direction of the Issuer by the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient publication of such notice.
Board of Directors” means either the Board of Directors of the Issuer or any committee of such Board duly authorized to act hereunder.
Business Day” means, with respect to any Security, a day that in the city (or in all of the cities, if more than one) in which amounts are payable, as specified in the form of such Security, is not a day on which banking institutions are authorized by law or regulation to close.

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Capitalized Lease” means, as applied to any Person, any lease of any property (whether real, personal, or mixed) of which the discounted present value of the rental obligations of such Person as lessee, in conformity with GAAP, is required to be capitalized on the balance sheet of such Person; and “Capitalized Lease Obligation” is defined to mean the rental obligations, as aforesaid, under such lease.
Capital Stock” means any and all shares, interests, participations or other equivalents (however designated, whether voting or non-voting) of the Issuer’s capital stock or other ownership interests, whether now outstanding or issued after the date of this Indenture, including, without limitation, all Common Stock and Preferred Stock.
Closing Price” on any day when used with respect to any class of Capital Stock means the closing sale price per share (or if no closing sale price is reported, the average of the bid and ask prices or, if more than one in either case, the average of the average bid and the average ask prices) on that date as reported by The Nasdaq Global Select Market or, if such Capital Stock is not listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, then on the principal U.S. national or regional securities exchange on which such Capital Stock is then listed. If such Capital Stock is not listed on either The Nasdaq Global Select Market or on any U.S. national or regional securities exchange on the relevant date, the Closing Price will be the last quoted bid price for the Company’s Common Stock in the over-the-counter market on the relevant date as reported by the OTC Markets Group Inc. or similar organization. In the event that no such quotation is available for any day, the Board of Directors shall be entitled to determine in good faith the current market price on the basis of such quotations as it considers appropriate.
Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or if at any time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties on such date.
Common Stock” means any and all shares, interests, participations or other equivalents (however designated, whether voting or non-voting) of the Issuer’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, whether now outstanding or issued after the date of the Indenture, including, without limitation, all series and classes of such common stock.
Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be principally administered, which office is, at the date as of which this Indenture is dated, located at ●.
Currency Agreement” means any foreign exchange contract, currency swap agreement, or other similar agreement or arrangement designed to protect against the fluctuation in currency values.
Default” means any Event of Default as defined in Section 4.01 and any event that is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

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Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Registered Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.03 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Registered Global Securities of that series.
Determination Date” has the meaning specified in Section 12.05. “Event of Default” has the meaning specified in Section 4.01.
GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America as in effect as of the date of determination, including, without limitation, those set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession. All ratios and computations contained in this Indenture shall be computed in conformity with GAAP applied on a consistent basis.
Guarantee” means any obligation, contingent or otherwise, of any Person directly or indirectly guaranteeing any Indebtedness or other obligation of any other Person and, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, any obligation, direct or indirect, contingent or otherwise, of such Person:
(i)    to purchase or pay (or advance or supply funds for the purchase or payment of) such Indebtedness or other obligation of such other Person (whether arising by virtue of partnership arrangements, or by agreement to keep-well, to purchase assets, goods, securities, or services, to take-or-pay, or to maintain financial statement conditions or otherwise); or
(ii)    entered into for purposes of assuring in any other manner the obligee of such Indebtedness or other obligation of the payment thereof or to protect such obligee against loss in respect thereof (in whole or in part);
provided, that the term “Guarantee” shall not include endorsements for collection or deposit in the ordinary course of business. The term “Guarantee” used as a verb has a corresponding meaning.
Holder”, “Securityholder” or other similar terms mean the registered holder of any Security.
Indebtedness” means, with respect to any Person at any date of determination (without duplication):

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(i)    all indebtedness of such Person for borrowed money;
(ii)    all obligations of such Person evidenced by bonds, debentures, notes, or other similar instruments, in each case, for value received or settlement of claims;
(iii)    all obligations of such Person in respect of letters of credit or other similar instruments (including reimbursement obligations with respect thereto);
(iv)    all obligations of such Person to pay the deferred and unpaid purchase price of property or services (but excluding trade accounts payable or accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business);
(v)    all obligations of such Person as lessee under Capitalized Leases;
(vi)    all Indebtedness of other Persons secured by a Lien on any asset of such Person, whether or not such Indebtedness is assumed by such Person; provided that the amount of such Indebtedness shall be the lesser of:
(1)    the fair market value of such asset at such date of determination; and
(2)    the amount of such Indebtedness;
(vii)    all Indebtedness of other Persons to the extent Guaranteed by such Person; and
(viii)    to the extent not otherwise included in this definition, obligations under Currency Agreements and Interest Rate Agreements.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, in no event shall the term “Indebtedness” be deemed to include letters of credit or bonds that secure performance or surety bonds or similar instruments that are issued in the ordinary course of business.
The amount of Indebtedness of any Person at any date shall be the outstanding balance at such date of all unconditional obligations as described above and, with respect to contingent obligations, the maximum liability upon the occurrence of the contingency giving rise to the obligation; provided that:
(x)    the amount outstanding at any time of any Indebtedness issued with original issue discount is the face amount of such Indebtedness less the remaining unamortized portion of the original issue discount of such Indebtedness at such time as determined in conformity with GAAP; and
(y)    Indebtedness shall not include any liability for federal, state, local, or other taxes.

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Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and delivered or, if amended or supplemented as herein provided, as so amended or supplemented or both, and shall include the forms and terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.
Interest” means, when used with respect to non-interest bearing Securities, interest payable after maturity. ”Interest Rate Agreement” means any obligation of any Person pursuant to any interest rate swap, cap, collar or similar arrangement providing protection against fluctuations in interest rates. For purposes of the Indenture, the amount of such obligation shall be the amount determined in respect thereof as of the end of the then most recently ended fiscal quarter of such Person, based on the assumption that such obligation had terminated at the end of such fiscal quarter, and in making such determination, if any agreement relating to such obligation provides for the netting of amounts payable by and to such Person thereunder or if any such agreement provides for the simultaneous payment of amounts by and to such Person, then in each such case, the amount of such obligation shall be the net amount so determined, plus any premium due upon default by such Person.
Issuer” means the Person identified as “Issuer” in the first paragraph hereof and, subject to Article 8, its successors and assigns.
Lien” means, with respect to any asset, any mortgage, lien, pledge, charge, security interest or encumbrance of any kind, or any other type of preferential arrangement that has the practical effect of creating a security interest, in respect of such asset. For the purposes of this Indenture, the Issuer shall be deemed to own subject to a Lien any asset that it has acquired or holds subject to the interest of a vendor or lessor under any conditional sale agreement, capital lease or other title retention agreement relating to such asset.
Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the chairman of the Issuer’s Board of Directors, its president or any vice president, and by its treasurer, any assistant treasurer, its secretary or any assistant secretary of the Issuer, and delivered to the Trustee. Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and include the statements provided for in Section 10.05.
Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing signed by legal counsel who may be an employee of or counsel to the Issuer and who shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and include the statements provided for in Section 10.05, if and to the extent required hereby.
Original Issue Date” of any Security (or portion thereof) means the earlier of (i) the date of such Security or (ii) the date of any Security (or portion thereof) for which such Security was issued (directly or indirectly) on registration of transfer, exchange or substitution.

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Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the Principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 4.01.
Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities, shall, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, mean, as of any particular time, all Securities authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except:
(i)    Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;
(ii)    Securities, or portions thereof, for the payment or redemption of which monies in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Issuer) or shall have been set aside, segregated and held in trust by the Issuer for the Holders of such Securities (if the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent), provided that if such Securities, or portions thereof, are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as herein provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and
(iii)    Securities in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered, or which shall have been paid, pursuant to the terms of Section 2.09 (except with respect to any such Security as to which proof satisfactory to the Trustee is presented that such Security is held by a person in whose hands such Security is a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Issuer).
In determining whether the Holders of the requisite Principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the Principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the Principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 4.01.
Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof or any other entity.
Preferred Stock” means any and all shares, interests, participations or other equivalents (however designated, whether voting or non-voting) of the Issuer’s preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, whether now outstanding or issued after the date of the Indenture, including, without limitation, all series and classes of such preferred stock.

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Principal” means, with respect to the Securities or any Security or any portion thereof, the principal amount of such Securities, Security or portion thereof, and shall be deemed to include “and premium, if any”.
record date” as used with respect to any interest payment date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest), has the meaning specified in Section 2.07.
Registered Global Security” means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Registered Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.04, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.04.
Registered Security” means any Security registered on the register maintained by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.08.
Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the corporate trust department of the Trustee, including any vice president, assistant vice president, assistant secretary, assistant treasurer, trust officer or any other officer of the Trustee who customarily performs functions similar to those performed by the Persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of such person’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.
Security” or “Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture, or, as the case may be, Securities that have been authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.
Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of all votes represented by all classes of outstanding Voting Stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person and one or more other Subsidiaries of such Person.
Trustee” means the Person identified as “Trustee” in the first paragraph hereof and, subject to the provisions of Article 5, shall also include any successor trustee.
Trust Indenture Act of 1939” (except as otherwise provided in Sections 7.01 and 7.02) means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was originally executed.
UCC” means the Uniform Commercial Code, as in effect in each applicable jurisdiction. ”Unregistered Security” means any Security other than a Registered Security.
U.S. Government Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of an agency of instrumentality of the United States of

8
    



America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt; provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation or the specific payment of interest on or principal of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.
Voting Stock” means, with respect to any Person, capital stock of any class or kind ordinarily having the power to vote for the election of directors, managers or other voting members of the governing body of such Person.
vice president” when used with respect to the Issuer or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title of “vice president”.
Wholly-Owned” is defined to mean, with respect to any Subsidiary of any Person, such Subsidiary if all of the outstanding common stock or other similar equity ownership interests (but not including preferred stock) in such Subsidiary (other than any director’s qualifying shares or investments by foreign nationals mandated by applicable law) is owned directly or indirectly by such Person.
Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity on a series of securities, calculated at the time of issuance of such series, or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series, and calculated in accordance with accepted financial practice.
ARTICLE 2    
SECURITIES
Section 2.01.    Forms Generally. The Securities of each series shall be substantially in such form (not inconsistent with this Indenture) as shall be established by or pursuant to a resolution of the Board of Directors or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have imprinted or otherwise reproduced thereon such legend or legends, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, as may be required to comply with any law or with any rules or regulations pursuant thereto, or with any rules of any securities exchange or to conform to general usage, all as may be determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution of the Securities. The Issuer shall furnish any such legends to the Trustee in writing.

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The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.
Section 2.02.    Form of Trustee’s Certification of Authentication. The Trustee’s certificate of authentication on all Securities shall be in substantially the following form:
This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.
●,
as Trustee
By:
 
 
Authorized Signatory:

Section 2.03.    Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series. The aggregate Principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.
The Securities may be issued in one or more series. There shall be established in or pursuant to a resolution of the Board of Directors and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, prior to the issuance of Securities of any series:
(a)    the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);
(b)    any limit upon the aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 2.08, 2.09, 2.11 or Section 12.03);
(c)    the date or dates on which the Principal of the Securities of the series is payable;
(d)    the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, or the method by which such rate shall be determined, the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest shall be payable and the record dates for the determination of Holders to whom interest is payable;
(e)    the place or places where the Principal of and any interest on Securities of the series shall be payable (if other than as provided in Section 3.02);

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(f)    the price or prices at which, the period or periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Issuer;
(g)    the obligation, if any, of the Issuer to redeem, purchase or repay Securities of the series at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which, the period or periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
(h)    the obligation, if any, of the Issuer to permit the conversion of the Securities of such series into Capital Stock, and the terms and conditions upon which such conversion shall be effected (including, without limitation, the initial conversion price or rate, the conversion period and any other provision in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in this Indenture relative to such obligation);
(i)    if other than denominations of $1,000 and any multiple thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;
(j)    if other than the Principal amount thereof, the portion of the Principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 4.01 or provable in bankruptcy pursuant to Section 4.02;
(k)    if the Securities of the series are issuable in whole or in part as one or more Registered Global Securities, the identity of the Depositary for such Registered Global Security or Securities;
(l)    any other terms of the series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture); and
(m)    any trustees, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrar or any other agents with respect to the Securities of such series.
All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to such resolution of the Board of Directors or in any such indenture supplemental hereto.
Section 2.04.    Authentication and Delivery of Securities. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Issuer may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Issuer to the Trustee for authentication, and the Trustee shall thereupon authenticate and deliver such Securities to or upon the written order of the Issuer, such order to be signed by both (a) the chairman of its Board of Directors, its president or any vice president and by its treasurer, any assistant treasurer, its secretary or any assistant secretary, without any further action by the Issuer. In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this

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Indenture in relation to such Securities the Trustee shall receive, and (subject to Section 5.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon:
(a)    a certified copy of any resolution or resolutions of the Board of Directors authorizing the action taken pursuant to the resolution or resolutions delivered under clause (b) below;
(b)    a copy of any resolution or resolutions of the Board of Directors relating to such series, in each case certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer;
(c)    an executed supplemental indenture, if any, and the documentation required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7.04;
(d)    an Officers’ Certificate setting forth the form and terms of the Securities as required pursuant to Section 2.01 and 2.03, respectively and prepared in accordance with Section 10.05;
(e)    an Opinion of Counsel, prepared in accordance with Section 10.05, to the effect:
(i)    that the form or forms and terms of such Securities have been established by or pursuant to a resolution of the Board of Directors or by a supplemental indenture as permitted by Section 2.01 and 2.03 in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture; and
(ii)    that such Securities, when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Issuer in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Issuer enforceable against the Issuer in accordance with their terms, except to the extent that enforcement thereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium, fraudulent conveyance or similar laws now or hereafter in effect relating to creditors’ rights generally, and general principles of equity (regardless of whether enforceability is considered in a proceeding in equity or at law).
The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities under this section if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken by the Issuer or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or board of trustees, executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees or Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability.
If the Issuer shall establish pursuant to Section 2.03 that the Securities of a series or a portion thereof are to be issued in the form of one or more Registered Global Securities, then the Issuer shall execute (in accordance with Section 2.05) and the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery one or more Registered Global

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Securities that (i) shall represent and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate Principal amount of all of the Securities of such series issued in such form and not yet canceled, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary for such Registered Global Security or Securities or the nominee of such Depositary, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to such Depositary or its custodian or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: ”Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, this Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to a nominee of the Depositary or by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such successor Depositary.”
Section 2.05.    Execution of Securities. The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Issuer by the chairman of its Board of Directors, its president, any vice president, its treasurer or any assistant treasurer, under its corporate seal and attested by its secretary or any assistant secretary. Such signatures may be the manual or facsimile signatures of the present or any future such officers. The seal of the Issuer may be in the form of a facsimile thereof and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Securities. Typographical and other minor errors or defects in any such reproduction of the seal or any such signature shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any Security that has been duly authenticated and delivered by the Trustee.
In case any officer of the Issuer who shall have signed any of the Securities shall cease to be such officer before the Security so signed shall be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee or disposed of by the Issuer, such Security nevertheless may be authenticated and delivered or disposed of as though the person who signed such Security had not ceased to be such officer of the Issuer; and any Security may be signed on behalf of the Issuer by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Security, shall be the proper officers of the Issuer, although at the date of the execution and delivery of this Indenture any such person was not such an officer.
Section 2.06.    Certificate of Authentication. Only such Securities as shall bear thereon a certificate of authentication substantially in the form hereinbefore recited, executed by the Trustee by the manual signature of one of its authorized signatories, shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose. Such certificate by the Trustee upon any Security executed by the Issuer shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.
Section 2.07.    Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest. The Securities shall be issuable as registered securities without coupons and in denominations as shall be specified as contemplated by Section 2.03. In the absence of any such specification with respect to the Securities of any series, the Securities of such series shall be issuable in denominations of $1,000 and any multiple thereof. The Securities shall be numbered, lettered, or otherwise distinguished in such manner or in accordance with such

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plan as the officers of the Issuer executing the same may determine as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof.
Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication, shall bear interest, if any, from the date and shall be payable on the dates, in each case, which shall be specified as contemplated by Section 2.03.
The person in whose name any Security of any series is registered at the close of business on any record date applicable to a particular series with respect to any interest payment date for such series shall be entitled to receive the interest, if any, payable on such interest payment date notwithstanding any transfer or exchange of such Security subsequent to the record date and prior to such interest payment date, except if and to the extent the Issuer shall default in the payment of the interest due on such interest payment date for such series, in which case such defaulted interest shall be paid to the persons in whose names Outstanding Securities for such series are registered at the close of business on a subsequent record date (which shall be not less than five Business Days prior to the date of payment of such defaulted interest) established by notice given by mail by or on behalf of the Issuer to the Holders of Securities not less than 15 days preceding such subsequent record date. The term “record date” as used with respect to any interest payment date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest) shall mean the date specified as such in the terms of the Securities of any particular series, or, if no such date is so specified, if such interest payment date is the first day of a calendar month, the fifteenth day of the next preceding calendar month or, if such interest payment date is the fifteenth day of a calendar month, the first day of such calendar month, whether or not such record date is a Business Day.
Section 2.08.    Registration, Transfer and Exchange. The Issuer will keep or cause to be kept at each office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02 a register or registers in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, it will register, and will register the transfer of, Securities as in this Article provided. Such register shall be in written form in the English language or in any other form capable of being converted into such form within a reasonable time. At all reasonable times such register or registers shall be open for inspection by the Trustee.
At the option of the Holder thereof, Registered Securities of any series (other than a Registered Global Security, except as set forth below) may be exchanged for a Registered Security or Registered Securities of such series and tenor having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate Principal amount, upon surrender of such Registered Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. If the Securities of any series are issued in both registered and unregistered form, except as otherwise established pursuant to Section 2.03, at the option of the Holder thereof, Unregistered Securities of any series may be exchanged for Registered Securities of such series and tenor having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate Principal amount, upon surrender of such

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Unregistered Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. At the option of the Holder thereof, if Unregistered Securities of any series, maturity date, interest rate and Original Issue Date are issued in more than one authorized denomination, except as otherwise established pursuant to Section 2.03, such Unregistered Securities may be exchanged for Unregistered Securities of such series and tenor having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate Principal amount, upon surrender of such Unregistered Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. Registered Securities of any series may not be exchanged for Unregistered Securities of such series. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.
All Registered Securities presented for registration of transfer, exchange, redemption, conversion or payment shall be duly endorsed by, or be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer in form satisfactory to the Issuer and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder or his attorney duly authorized in writing.
The Issuer may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities. No service charge shall be made for any such transaction.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2.08, unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, a Registered Global Security representing all or a portion of the Securities of a series may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary for such series to a nominee of such Depositary or by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by such Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary for such series or a nominee of such successor Depositary.
If at any time the Depositary for any Registered Global Securities of any series notifies the Issuer that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Registered Global Securities or if at any time the Depositary for such Registered Global Securities shall no longer be eligible under applicable law, the Issuer shall appoint a successor Depositary eligible under applicable law with respect to such Registered Global Securities. If a successor Depositary eligible under applicable law for such Registered Global Securities is not appointed by the Issuer within 90 days after the Issuer receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility, the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of the Issuer’s order for the authentication and delivery of definitive Registered Securities of such series and tenor, will authenticate and make available for delivery Registered Securities of such series and tenor, in any authorized

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denominations, in an aggregate Principal amount equal to the Principal amount of such Registered Global Securities, in exchange for such Registered Global Securities.
The Issuer may at any time and in its sole discretion determine that any Registered Global Securities of any series shall no longer be maintained in global form. In such event, or in the event that there shall have occurred and be continuing an Event of Default with respect to a series of Securities, the Issuer will, upon the request of any Holder, execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of the Issuer’s order for the authentication and delivery of definitive Registered Securities of such series and tenor, will authenticate and make available for delivery, Registered Securities of such series and tenor in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate Principal amount equal to the Principal amount of such Registered Global Securities, in exchange for such Registered Global Securities.
Any time the Registered Securities of any series are not in the form of Registered Global Securities pursuant to the preceding two paragraphs, the Issuer agrees to supply the Trustee with a reasonable supply of certificated Registered Securities without the legend required by Section 2.04 and the Trustee agrees to hold such Registered Securities in safekeeping until authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.
If established by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.03 with respect to any Registered Global Security, the Depositary for such Registered Global Security may surrender such Registered Global Security in exchange in whole or in part for Registered Securities of the same series and tenor in definitive registered form on such terms as are acceptable to the Issuer and such Depositary. Thereupon, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, without service charge,
(i)    to the Person specified by such Depositary new Registered Securities of the same series and tenor, of any authorized denominations as requested by such Person, in an aggregate Principal amount equal to and in exchange for such Person’s beneficial interest in the Registered Global Security; and
(ii)    to such Depositary a new Registered Global Security in a denomination equal to the difference, if any, between the Principal amount of the surrendered Registered Global Security and the aggregate Principal amount of Registered Securities authenticated and delivered pursuant to clause (i) above.
Registered Securities issued in exchange for a Registered Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.08 shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary for such Registered Global Security, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee or an agent of the Issuer or the Trustee. The Trustee or such agent shall deliver such Securities to or as directed by the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

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All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Issuer, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.
Notwithstanding anything herein or in the forms or terms of any Securities to the contrary, none of the Issuer, the Trustee or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be required to exchange any Unregistered Security for a Registered Security if such exchange would result in adverse Federal income tax consequences to the Issuer (such as, for example, the inability of the Issuer to deduct from its income, as computed for Federal income tax purposes, the interest payable on the Unregistered Securities) under then applicable United States Federal income tax laws. The Trustee and any such agent shall be entitled to rely on an Officers’ Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel in determining such result.
Neither the Registrar nor the Issuer shall be required (i) to issue, authenticate, register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any series for a period of 15 days before the mailing of a notice of redemption of such Securities to be redeemed or (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Security selected for redemption in whole or in part.
Section 2.09.    Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or defaced and shall be surrendered to the Trustee, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated or defaced Security. If the Holder of any Security claims that the Security has been lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken Security, if the applicant so requests before the Issuer has notice that the Security has been acquired by a protected purchaser, and the applicant furnishes to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to indemnify and defend and to save each of them harmless and the applicant satisfies other reasonable requirements imposed by the Issuer.
Upon the issuance of any substitute Security, the Issuer may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee and its counsel) connected therewith. In case any Security which has matured or is about to mature or has been called for redemption in full shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer may instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated or defaced Security), if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or taking, the applicant shall also furnish to the Issuer and the Trustee and any agent of the

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Issuer or the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or wrongful taking of such Security and of the ownership thereof.
Every substitute Security of any series issued pursuant to the provisions of this section by virtue of the fact that any such Security is destroyed, lost or stolen shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Issuer, whether or not the destroyed, lost or wrongfully taken Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone and shall be entitled to all the benefits of (but shall be subject to all the limitations of rights set forth in) this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of such series duly authenticated and delivered hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that, to the extent permitted by law, the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, defaced or destroyed, lost or wrongfully taken Securities and shall preclude any and all other rights or remedies.
Section 2.10.    Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof. All Securities surrendered for payment, redemption, repurchase, conversion, registration of transfer or exchange, if surrendered to the Issuer or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, shall be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be canceled by it; and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. The Trustee shall dispose of canceled Securities held by it in accordance with the record retention policies of the Trustee in effect from time to time and, if such canceled certificates are destroyed, shall deliver a certificate of destruction to the Issuer. If the Issuer shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.
Section 2.11.    Temporary Securities. Pending the preparation of definitive Securities for any series, the Issuer may execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver temporary Securities for such series (printed, lithographed, typewritten or otherwise reproduced, in each case in form satisfactory to the Trustee). Temporary Securities of any series shall be issuable as registered Securities without coupons, of any authorized denomination, and substantially in the form of the definitive Securities of such series but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Issuer with the concurrence of the Trustee. Temporary Securities may contain such reference to any provisions of this Indenture as may be appropriate. Every temporary Security shall be executed by the Issuer and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities. Without unreasonable delay the Issuer shall execute and shall furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor without charge at each office or agency to be maintained by the Issuer for that purpose pursuant to Section 3.02, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities of such series a like aggregate Principal amount of definitive

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Securities of the same series of authorized denominations. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series.
Section 2.12.    Computation of Interest. Except as otherwise specified in the Securities of a series, interest shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.
Section 2.13.    CUSIP Numbers. The Issuer in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Issuer will notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.
ARTICLE 3    
COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE
Section 3.01.    Payment of Principal and Interest. The Issuer covenants and agrees for the benefit of each series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the Principal of, and interest on, each of the Securities of such series at the place or places, at the respective times and in the manner provided in such Securities. Each installment of interest on the Securities of any series may be paid by mailing checks for such interest payable to or upon the written order of the Holders of Securities entitled thereto as they shall appear on the registry books of the Issuer.
Notwithstanding any provisions of this Indenture and the Securities of any series to the contrary, if the Issuer and a Holder of any Registered Security so agree or if expressly provided pursuant to Section 2.03, payments of interest on, and any portion of the Principal of, such Holder’s Registered Security shall be made by the paying agent, upon receipt from the Issuer of immediately available funds by 11:00 a.m., New York City time (or such other time as may be agreed to between the Issuer and the paying agent) or the Issuer, directly to the Holder of such Security (by wire transfer of Federal funds or immediately available funds or otherwise) if the Holder has delivered written instructions to the Trustee 15 days prior to such payment date requesting that such payment will be so made and designating the bank account to which such payments shall be so made and, in the case of payments of Principal, surrenders the same to the Trustee. The Trustee shall be entitled to rely on the last instruction delivered by the Holder pursuant to this Section 3.01 unless a new instruction is delivered 15 days prior to a payment date. The Issuer will indemnify and hold each of the Trustee and any paying agent harmless against any loss, liability or expense (including attorneys’ fees and expenses) resulting from any act or omission to act on the part of the Issuer or any such

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Holder in connection with any such agreement or from making any payment in accordance with any such agreement.
Section 3.02.    Offices for Payments, etc. So long as any of the Securities remain outstanding, the Issuer will maintain in the Borough of Manhattan, The City of New York an office or agency (n) where the Securities may be presented for payment, (o) where the Securities may be presented for registration of transfer and for exchange as in this Indenture provided, (p) where notices and demands to or upon the Issuer in respect of the Securities or of this Indenture may be served and (q) for Securities of each series that is convertible, where such Securities may be presented for conversion. The Issuer will give to the Trustee written notice of the location of any such office or agency and of any change of location thereof. Unless otherwise specified in accordance with Section 2.03, the Issuer hereby initially designates the Corporate Trust Office of Trustee as the office to be maintained by it for each such purpose. In case the Issuer shall fail to so designate or maintain any such office or agency or shall fail to give such notice of the location or of any change in the location thereof, presentations and demands may be made and notices may be served at the Corporate Trust Office.
Section 3.03.    Paying Agents. Whenever the Issuer shall appoint a paying agent other than the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series, it will cause such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:
(f)    that it will hold all sums received by it as such agent for the payment of the Principal of or interest on the Securities of such series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Issuer or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series or of the Trustee;
(g)    that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Issuer (or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) to make any payment of the Principal of or interest on the Securities of such series when the same shall be due and payable; and during the continuance of the failure referred to in clause Section 3.03(b) above.
The Issuer will, on or prior to each due date of the Principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay such Principal or interest so becoming due, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.
If the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent with respect to the Securities of any Series, it will, on or before each due date of the Principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series a sum sufficient to pay such Principal or interest so becoming due. The Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.
Whenever the Issuer shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, on or before each due date of the Principal of or interest on any

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Securities of such series, deposit with the paying agent or agents for the Securities of such series a sum, by 11:00 a.m. New York City time in immediately available funds on the payment date, sufficient to pay the Principal or interest so becoming due with respect to the Securities of such series, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee in writing of any failure so to act.
Anything in this section to the contrary notwithstanding, the Issuer may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining a satisfaction and discharge with respect to one or more or all series of Securities hereunder, or for any other reason, pay or cause to be paid to the Trustee all sums held in trust for any such series by the Issuer or any paying agent hereunder, as required by this Section, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the trusts herein contained.
Anything in this Section 3.03 to the contrary notwithstanding, the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section 3.03 is subject to the provisions of Section 9.05.
Section 3.04.    Certificate of the Issuer. Within 120 days after the close of the fiscal year ended ●, and within 120 days after the close of each fiscal year thereafter, the Issuer will furnish to the Trustee a brief certificate (which need not comply with Section 10.05) from the principal executive, financial or accounting officer of the Issuer as to his or her knowledge of the Issuer’s compliance with all conditions and covenants under the Indenture (such compliance to be determined without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided under the Indenture).
At the time such certificate is filed, the Issuer will also file with the Trustee a letter or statement of the independent accountants who shall have certified the financial statements of the Issuer for its preceding fiscal year to the effect that, in making the examination necessary for certification of such financial statements, they have obtained no knowledge of any default by the Issuer in the performance or fulfillment of any covenant, agreement or condition contained in this Indenture, which default remains uncured at the date of such letter or statement, or, if they shall have obtained knowledge of any such uncured default, specifying in such letter or statement such default or defaults and the nature and status thereof, it being understood that such accountants shall not be liable directly or indirectly for failure to obtain knowledge of any such default or defaults, and that nothing contained in this Section 3.04 shall be construed to require such accountants to make any investigation beyond the scope required in connection with such examination.
Section 3.05.    List of Securityholders. If and so long as the Trustee shall not be the Security registrar for the Securities of any series, the Issuer will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee a list in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of the Holders of the Securities of such series pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (a) semi-annually not more than 10 days after each record date for the payment of interest on such Securities, as hereinabove specified, as of such record date and on dates to be determined pursuant to Section 2.03 for non-interest

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bearing Securities in each year and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after receipt by the Issuer of any such request as of a date not more than 10 days prior to the time such information is furnished.
Section 3.06.    Reports by the Issuer. The Issuer covenants to:
(a)    file, whether or not required to do so under applicable law, with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Issuer files the same with the Commission:
(i)    copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents, and other reports which the Issuer files with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; and
(ii)    such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Issuer with the conditions and covenants provided for in this Indenture as the Issuer may from time to time file with the Commission; and
(b)    transmit to the Securityholders, in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 10.04, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed with the Trustee pursuant to the provisions of subdivision (a) of this Section 3.06 as may be required by the rules and regulations of the Commission.
Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Issuer’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers’ Certificates).
Section 3.07.    Corporate Existence. So long as any of the Securities remain unpaid, the Issuer will at all times (except as otherwise provided or permitted elsewhere in this Indenture) do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence.
Section 3.08.    Restrictions on Mergers, Sales and Consolidations. So long as any of the Securities remain unpaid, the Issuer will not consolidate or merge with or sell, convey or lease all or substantially all of its property to any other corporation except as permitted in Article 8 hereof.
Section 3.09.    Further Assurances. From time to time whenever requested by the Trustee, the Issuer will execute and deliver such further instruments and assurances and do such further acts as may be reasonably necessary or proper to carry out more effectually the purposes of this Indenture or to secure the rights and remedies hereunder of the Holders of the Securities of any series.

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ARTICLE 4    
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT
Section 4.01.    Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default. “Event of Default” with respect to Securities of any series wherever used herein, means any one of the following events which shall have occurred and be continuing (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body):
(r)    default by the Issuer in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days;
(s)    default by the Issuer in the payment of all or any part of the Principal on any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable either at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, and continuance of such default for a period of five days;
(t)    default by the Issuer in the performance, or breach by the Issuer, of any of its covenants or agreements in respect of the Securities of such series (other than a covenant or agreement in respect of the Securities of such series a default in whose performance or whose breach is elsewhere in this section specifically dealt with), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 30 consecutive days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Issuer by the Trustee or to the Issuer and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in Principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of all series affected thereby, a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a notice of default hereunder;
(u)    the entry by a court having jurisdiction in the premises of a decree or order for relief in respect of the Issuer in an involuntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or the appointment of a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for any substantial part of the Issuer’s property and assets or the ordering of the winding up or liquidation of the Issuer’s affairs, and the continuance of any such decree or order unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days;
(v)    the commencement by the Issuer of a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or the consent by the Issuer to the entry of an order for relief in an involuntary case under any such law, or the consent by the Issuer to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or

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for any substantial part of the Issuer’s property, or the making of any general assignment by the Issuer for the benefit of creditors; or
(w)    any other Event of Default provided in the supplemental indenture or resolution of the Board of Directors under which such series of Securities is issued or in the form of Security for such series.
If an Event of Default described in clauses 4.01(a), 4.01(b), 4.01(c) or 4.01(f) occurs and is continuing, then, and in each and every such case, unless the Principal of all of the Securities of such series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of any affected series then Outstanding hereunder (each such series voting as a separate class) by notice in writing to the Issuer (and to the Trustee if given by Securityholders), may declare the entire Principal (or, if the Securities of such series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the Principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) of all Securities of such series and the interest accrued thereon, if any, to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default described in clauses Section 4.01(d) or Section 4.01(e) occurs and is continuing, then the Principal amount of all the Securities then Outstanding and interest accrued thereon, if any, shall be and become immediately due and payable, without any notice or other action by any Holder or the Trustee, to the full extent permitted by applicable law.
The foregoing provisions, however, are subject to the condition that if, at any time after the Principal (or, if the Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the Principal as may be specified in the terms thereof) of the Securities of any series (or of all the Securities, as the case may be) shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the monies due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the Issuer shall pay or shall deposit with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of such series (or of all the Securities, as the case may be) and the Principal of any and all Securities of such series (or of all the Securities, as the case may be) which shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such Principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series (or at the respective rates of interest or Yields to Maturity of all the Securities, as the case may be) to the date of such payment or deposit) and such amount as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, its agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith, and if any and all Events of Default under the Indenture, other than the non-payment of the Principal of Securities which shall have become due by acceleration, shall have been cured, waived or otherwise remedied as provided herein, then and in every such case the Holders of a majority in aggregate Principal amount of all the then Outstanding Securities of all such series that have been

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accelerated, each such series voting as a separate class, by written notice to the Issuer and to the Trustee, may waive all defaults with respect to such series (or with respect to all the Securities, as the case may be) and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, but no such waiver or rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or shall impair any right consequent thereon.
For all purposes under this Indenture, if a portion of the Principal of any Original Issue Discount Securities shall have been accelerated and declared due and payable pursuant to the provisions hereof, then, from and after such declaration, unless such declaration has been rescinded and annulled, the Principal amount of such Original Issue Discount Securities shall be deemed, for all purposes hereunder, to be such Portion of the Principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, and payment of such portion of the Principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, together with interest, if any, thereon and all other amounts owing thereunder, shall constitute payment in full of such Original Issue Discount Securities.
Section 4.02.    Collection of Indebtedness by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt. The Issuer covenants that (h) in case default shall be made in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of any series when such interest shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 30 days or (i) in case default shall be made in the payment of all or any part of the Principal of any of the Securities of any series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of such series or upon any redemption or by declaration or otherwise, then in each case upon demand of the Trustee, the Issuer will pay to the Trustee for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series (x) the whole amount that then shall have become due and payable on all Securities of such series for Principal or interest, as the case may be (with interest to the date of such payment upon the overdue Principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series) and (y) in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee, their respective agents and counsel, and any expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee except as a result of its negligence or bad faith.
Until such demand is made by the Trustee, the Issuer may pay the Principal of and interest on the Securities of any series to the registered Holders, whether or not the Principal of and interest on the Securities of such series be overdue.
In case the Issuer shall fail forthwith to pay such amounts upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceedings to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the

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Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities and collect in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated, the monies adjudged or decreed to be payable.
In case there shall be pending proceedings relative to the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities under Title 11 of the United States Code or any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law, or in case a receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official shall have been appointed for or taken possession of the Issuer or its property or such other obligor, or in case of any other comparable judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor, the Trustee, irrespective of whether the Principal of any Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand pursuant to the provisions of this Section, shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceedings or otherwise:
(j)    to file and prove a claim or claims for the whole amount of Principal and interest (or, if the Securities of any series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the Principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities of any series, and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee, and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and for reimbursement of all expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee, except as a result of negligence or bad faith) and of the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor;
(k)    unless prohibited by applicable law and regulations, to vote on behalf of the Holders of the Securities of any series in any election of a trustee or a standby trustee in arrangement, reorganization, liquidation or other bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings or person performing similar functions in comparable proceedings; and
(l)    to collect and receive any monies or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute all amounts received with respect to the claims of the Securityholders and of the Trustee on their behalf; and any trustee, receiver, or liquidator, custodian or other similar official is hereby authorized by each of the Securityholders to make payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee such amounts as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, each predecessor Trustee and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each

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predecessor Trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith and all other amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor Trustee pursuant to Section 5.06.
Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or vote for or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of any series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding except, as aforesaid, to vote for the election of a trustee in bankruptcy or similar person.
All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the Securities, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof on any trial or other proceedings relative thereto, and any such action or proceedings instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment, subject to the payment of the expenses, disbursements and compensation of the Trustee, each predecessor Trustee and their respective agents and attorneys, shall be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such action was taken.
In any proceedings brought by the Trustee (and also any proceedings involving the interpretation of any provision of this Indenture to which the Trustee shall be a party) the Trustee shall be held to represent all the Holders of the Securities in respect to which such action was taken, and it shall not be necessary to make any Holders of such Securities parties to any such proceedings.
Section 4.03.    Application of Proceeds. Any monies collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article in respect of any series shall be applied in the following order at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such monies on account of Principal or interest, upon presentation of the several Securities in respect of which monies have been collected and stamping (or otherwise noting) thereon the payment, or issuing Securities of such series in reduced Principal amounts in exchange for the presented Securities of like series if only partially paid, or upon surrender thereof if fully paid:
FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses applicable to such series in respect of which monies have been collected, including reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee and their respective agents and attorneys and of all expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith, and all other amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor Trustee pursuant to Section 5.06;
SECOND: In case the Principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which monies have been collected shall not have become and be then due and payable, to the payment of interest on the Securities of such series in default in the order of the maturity of the installments of such interest, with interest (to the

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extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon the overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in such Securities, such payments to be made ratably to the persons entitled thereto, without discrimination or preference;
THIRD: In case the Principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which monies have been collected shall have become and shall be then due and payable, to the payment of the whole amount then owing and unpaid upon all the Securities of such series for Principal and interest, with interest upon the overdue Principal, and (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series; and in case such monies shall be insufficient to pay in full the whole amount so due and unpaid upon the Securities of such series, then to the payment of such Principal and interest or yield to maturity, without preference or priority of Principal over interest or yield to maturity, or of interest or yield to maturity over Principal, or of any installment of interest over any other installment of interest, or of any Security of such series over any other Security of such series, ratably to the aggregate of such Principal and accrued and unpaid interest or yield to maturity; and
FOURTH: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Issuer or any other person lawfully entitled thereto.
Section 4.04.    Suits for Enforcement. In case an Event of Default has occurred, has not been waived and is continuing, the Trustee may proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.
Section 4.05.    Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings. In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case the Issuer and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Issuer, the Trustee and the Securityholders shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.
Section 4.06.    Limitations on Suits by Securityholder. No Holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any action or proceeding at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise upon or under or with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a trustee, receiver, liquidator, custodian or other similar official or for any other remedy

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hereunder, unless such Holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof, as hereinbefore provided, and unless also the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of such series then outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action or proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as trustee hereunder and shall have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby and the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity shall have failed to institute any such action or proceeding and no direction inconsistent with such written request shall have been given to the Trustee pursuant to Section 4.09; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.
Section 4.07.    Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture and any provision of any Security, the right of any Holder of any Security to receive payment of the Principal of or interest on such Security on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security, or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such Holder.
Section 4.08.    Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default. Except as provided in Section 4.06, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Securityholders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.
No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Securityholder to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to Section 4.06, every power and remedy given by this Indenture or by law to the Trustee or to the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

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Section 4.09.    Control by Securityholders. The Holders of a majority in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of each series affected (with each series voting as a separate class) at the time outstanding shall have the right to direct the time, method, and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by this Indenture; provided that such direction shall not be otherwise than in accordance with law and the provisions of this Indenture and provided further that (subject to the provisions of Section 5.01) the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, shall determine that the action or proceeding so directed may not lawfully be taken or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or Responsible Officers of the Trustee shall determine that the action or proceedings so directed would subject the Trustee to personal liability or if the Trustee in good faith shall so determine that the actions or forbearances specified in or pursuant to such direction would be unduly prejudicial to the interests of Holders of the Securities of all series so affected not joining in the giving of said direction.
Nothing in this Indenture shall impair the right of the Trustee to take any action which is not inconsistent with such direction or directions by Securityholders.
Section 4.10.    Waiver of Past Defaults. Prior to a declaration of the acceleration of the maturity of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 4.01, the Holders of a majority in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of such series at the time Outstanding (each such series voting as a separate class) may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such series waive an existing default or Event of Default, except a default in the payment of Principal of or interest on any Security as specified in clauses (a) or (b) of Section 4.01 or in respect of a covenant or provision hereof which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of each Holder affected as provided in Section 7.02. In the case of any such waiver, the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities of each series affected shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively.
Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist and be deemed to have been cured and not to have occurred, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, and not to have occurred for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereon.
Section 4.11.    Trustee to Give Notice of Default, But May Withhold in Certain Circumstances. The Trustee shall give to the Securityholders of any series, as the names and addresses of such Holders appear on the registry books, notice by mail of all defaults known to Responsible Officers of the Trustee which have occurred with respect to such series, such notice to be transmitted within 90 days after the occurrence thereof, unless such defaults shall have been cured before the giving of such notice (the term “default” or “defaults” for the purposes of this section being hereby defined to mean any event or

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condition which is, or with notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default); provided that, except in the case of default in the payment of the Principal of or interest on any of the Securities of such series, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of such series.
Section 4.12.    Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs. All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; provided that the provisions of this Section 4.12 shall not apply to (i) any suit instituted by the Trustee, (ii) any suit instituted by any Securityholder or group of Securityholders of any series holding in the aggregate more than 10% in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of such series or (iii) any suit instituted by a Holder pursuant to Section 4.07.
ARTICLE 5    
CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE
Section 5.01.    Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee. With respect to the Holders of any series of Securities issued hereunder, the Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a particular series and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default which may have occurred with respect to such series, undertakes to perform such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (which has not been cured or waived) the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.
(m)    Prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of any series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to such series which may have occurred:
(i)    the duties and obligations of the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any Series shall be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no

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implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and
(ii)    in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any statements, certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such statements, certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture.
(n)    No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:
(i)    this subsection (b) shall not be construed to limit the effect of subsection (a) of this Section 5.01;
(ii)    the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts; and
(iii)    the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture.
None of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if there shall be reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such liability is not reasonably assured to it.
The provisions of this Section 5.01 are in furtherance of and subject to Sections 315 and 316 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.
Whether or not therein expressly provided, every provision of this Indenture relating to the conduct of, affecting the liability of or affording protection to the Trustee shall be subject to the provisions of this Section 5.01.
Section 5.02.    Certain Rights of the Trustee. In furtherance of and subject to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, and subject to Section 5.01:

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(a)    In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, Officers’ Certificate or any other certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, coupon, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;
(b)    any request, direction, order or demand of the Issuer mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by an Officers’ Certificate (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed); and any resolution of the Board of Directors may be evidenced to the Trustee by a copy thereof certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer;
(c)    the Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and any advice or Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with such advice or Opinion of Counsel;
(d)    the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the trusts or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in connection with such request, order or direction;
(e)    the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion, rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;
(f)    prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default hereunder and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default, the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, appraisal, bond, debenture, note, coupon, security, or other paper or document unless requested in writing so to do by the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of all series affected then outstanding; provided that, if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require indemnity satisfactory to it against such expenses or liabilities as a condition to proceeding, and the reasonable expenses of every such investigation shall be paid by the Issuer or, if paid by the Trustee or any predecessor trustee, shall be repaid by the Issuer upon demand;
(g)    the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys not regularly in

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its employ and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any such agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;
(h)    the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken, suffered or omitted in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion, rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;
(i)    the Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a default is received by the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities and this Indenture;
(j)    the rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder, and each agent, custodian and other Person employed to act hereunder; and
(k)    the Trustee may request that the Issuer deliver an Officers’ Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions pursuant to this Indenture, which Officers’ Certificate may be signed by any person authorized to sign an Officers’ Certificate, including any person specified as so authorized in any such certificate previously delivered and not superseded.
Section 5.03.    Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof. The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except the Trustee’s certificates of authentication, shall be taken as the statements of the Issuer, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or the Securities. The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Issuer of any of the Securities or of the proceeds thereof.
Section 5.04.    Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, etc. The Trustee or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent and may otherwise deal with the Issuer and receive, collect, hold and retain collections from the Issuer with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent.
Section 5.05.    Monies Held by Trustee. All monies received by the Trustee in trust hereunder need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by mandatory provisions of law. Neither the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be under any liability for interest on any monies received by it hereunder.
Section 5.06.    Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim. The Issuer covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee from time to time, and the Trustee

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shall be entitled to, such compensation as shall be agreed in writing from time to time by the Issuer and the Trustee (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust) and the Issuer covenants and agrees to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by or on behalf of it in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all agents and other persons not regularly in its employ) except to the extent any such expense, disbursement or advance may arise from its negligence or bad faith. The Issuer also covenants and agrees to indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this Indenture or the trusts hereunder and the performance of its duties hereunder, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against or investigating any claim of liability (whether asserted by the Issuer, a Holder or any other Person) in the premises, except to the extent such loss, liability or expense is due to the negligence or bad faith of the Trustee or such predecessor Trustee. The obligations of the Issuer under this section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder and shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or the resignation or removal of the Trustee. Such additional indebtedness shall be a senior claim and lien to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the Holders of particular Securities, and the Securities are hereby subordinated to such senior claim. The parties agree that if the Trustee renders services following an Event of Default under Section 4.01(d) or (e), compensation for such services is intended to constitute administrative expense under any bankruptcy law.
Section 5.07.    Right of Trustee to Rely on Officers’ Certificate, etc. Subject to Sections 5.01 and 5.02, whenever in the administration of the trusts of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officers’ Certificate delivered to the Trustee, and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.
Section 5.08.    Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee. The Trustee for each series of Securities hereunder shall at all times be a corporation which is eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and which has (or which is a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary, directly or indirectly, of a bank holding company which has) a combined capital and surplus of $50,000,000. If such corporation or holding company publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant

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to law or to the requirements of a Federal, State or District of Columbia supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation or holding company shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published.
Section 5.09.    Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee. (a) The Trustee, or any trustee or trustees hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to one or more or all series of Securities by giving written notice of resignation to the Issuer. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Issuer shall promptly appoint a successor trustee or trustees with respect to the applicable series by written instrument in duplicate, executed by authority of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee or trustees. If no successor Trustee shall have been so appointed with respect to any series and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition, at the expense of the Issuer, any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of the applicable series for at least six months may, subject to the provisions of Section 4.12, on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor Trustee. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor Trustee.
(b)    In case at any time any of the following shall occur:
(i)    the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 with respect to any series of Securities after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months;
(ii)    the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder; or
(iii)    the Trustee shall become incapable of acting with respect to any series of Securities, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or a receiver or liquidator of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation; then, in any such case, the Issuer may remove the Trustee with respect to the applicable series of Securities and appoint a successor trustee for such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors of the Issuer, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor Trustee, or, subject to Section 315(e) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of

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the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.
(c)    The Holders of a majority in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of each series at the time outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of such series and appoint a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by delivering to the Trustee so removed, to the successor Trustee so appointed and to the Issuer the evidence provided in Section 6.01 of the action in that regard taken by the Securityholders.
(d)    Any resignation or removal of the Trustee with respect to any series and any appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section 5.09 shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 5.10.
Section 5.10.    Acceptance of Appointment by Successor. Any successor Trustee appointed as provided in Section 5.09 shall execute and deliver to the Issuer and to its predecessor Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment hereunder, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the predecessor Trustee with respect to all or any applicable series shall become effective and such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all rights, powers, duties and obligations with respect to such series of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as Trustee for such series hereunder. On the written request of the Issuer or of the successor Trustee, upon payment of its charges then unpaid, the Trustee ceasing to act shall, subject to Section 5.06, pay over to the successor Trustee all monies at the time held by it hereunder and shall execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor Trustee all such rights, powers, duties and obligations. Upon request of any such successor Trustee, the Issuer shall execute any and all instruments in writing for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor Trustee all such rights and powers. Any Trustee ceasing to act shall, nevertheless, retain a prior claim upon all property or funds held or collected by such Trustee to secure any amounts then due it pursuant to the provisions of Section 5.06.
If a successor Trustee is appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Issuer, the predecessor Trustee and each successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any applicable series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto which shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the predecessor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series as to which the predecessor Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the predecessor Trustee, and shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such

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Trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such Trustee shall be Trustee of a trust or trusts under separate indentures.
Upon acceptance of appointment by any successor Trustee as provided in this Section 5.10, the Issuer shall mail notice thereof by first-class mail to the Holders of Securities of any series for which such successor Trustee is acting as Trustee at their last addresses as they shall appear in the Security register. If the acceptance of appointment is substantially contemporaneous with the resignation, then the notice called for by the preceding sentence may be combined with the notice called for by Section 5.09. If the Issuer fails to mail such notice within 10 days after acceptance of appointment by the successor Trustee, the successor Trustee shall cause such notice to be mailed at the expense of the Issuer.
Section 5.11.    Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee. Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be eligible under the provisions of Section 5.08, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding.
In case at the time such successor to the Trustee shall succeed to the trusts created by this Indenture any of the Securities of any series shall have been authenticated but not delivered, any such successor to the Trustee may adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor Trustee and deliver such Securities so authenticated; and, in case at that time any of the Securities of any series shall not have been authenticated, any successor to the Trustee may authenticate such Securities either in the name of any predecessor hereunder or in the name of the successor Trustee; and in all such cases such certificate shall have the full force which it is anywhere in the Securities of such series or in this Indenture provided that the certificate of the Trustee shall have; provided, that the right to adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor Trustee or to authenticate Securities of any series in the name of any predecessor Trustee shall apply only to its successor or successors by merger, conversion or consolidation.
Section 5.12.    Reports to the Trustee. The Trustee shall transmit to Holders such reports concerning the Trustee and its actions under this Indenture as may be required pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act at the times and in the manner provided pursuant thereto. If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee shall, within sixty days after each May 15 following the date of the initial issuance of Securities under this Indenture deliver to Holders a brief report, dated as of such May 15, which complies with the provisions of such Section 313(a).
A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Holders, be filed by the Trustee with each stock exchange, if any, upon which the Securities are listed,

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with the Commission and with the Issuer. The Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee when the Securities are listed on any stock exchange and of any delisting thereof.
ARTICLE 6    
CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS
Section 6.01.    Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders. Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by a specified percentage in Principal amount of the Securityholders of any or all series may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such specified percentage of Securityholders in person or by agent duly appointed in writing; and, except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments are delivered to the Trustee. Proof of execution of any instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Sections 5.01 and 5.02) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Issuer, if made in the manner provided in this Article.
Section 6.02.    Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities; Record Date. Subject to Sections 5.01 and 5.02, the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder or his agent or proxy may be proved by the certificate of any notary public or other officer authorized to take acknowledgment of deeds, that the Person executing such instrument acknowledged to such notary public or other such officer the execution thereof, or by an affidavit of a witness to such execution sworn to before any such notary public or other officer. Where such execution is by an officer of a corporation or association or a member of a partnership on behalf of such corporation, association or partnership, as the case may be, or by any other Person acting in a representative capacity, such certificate or affidavit shall also constitute sufficient proof of such Person’s authority. The holding of Securities shall be proved by the Security register or by a certificate of the registrar thereof. The Issuer may set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of Holders of Securities of any series entitled to vote or consent to any action referred to in Section 6.01, which record date may be set at any time or from time to time by notice to the Trustee, for any date or dates (in the case of any adjournment or reconsideration) not more than 60 days nor less than five days prior to the proposed date of such vote or consent, and thereafter, notwithstanding any other provisions hereof, only Holders of Securities of such series of record on such record date shall be entitled to so vote or give such consent or revoke such vote or consent.
Section 6.03.    Holders to be Treated as Owners. Prior to due presentment of a Security for registration of transfer, the Issuer, the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee may deem and treat the person in whose name any Security shall be registered upon the Security register for such series as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notation of ownership or other writing thereon) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the Principal of and, subject to the provisions of this Indenture, interest on such Security and

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for all other purposes, and neither the Issuer nor the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be affected by any notice to the contrary. All such payments so made to any such person, or upon his order, shall be valid, and, to the extent of the sum or sums so paid, effectual to satisfy and discharge the liability for monies payable upon any such Security.
Section 6.04.    Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding. In determining whether the Holders of the requisite aggregate Principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, Securities which are owned by the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made or by any person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver only Securities as to which the Trustee has received written notice are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities or any person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities. In case of a dispute as to such right, the advice of counsel shall be full protection in respect of any decision made by the Trustee in accordance with such advice. Upon request of the Trustee, the Issuer shall furnish to the Trustee promptly an Officers’ Certificate listing and identifying all Securities, if any, known by the Issuer to be owned or held by or for the account of any of the above-described persons; and, subject to Sections 5.01 and 5.02, the Trustee shall be entitled to accept such Officers’ Certificate as conclusive evidence of the facts therein set forth and of the fact that all Securities not listed therein are Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination.
Section 6.05.    Right of Revocation of Action Taken. At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 6.01, of the taking of any action by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any Holder of a Security the serial number of which is shown by the evidence to be included among the serial numbers of the Securities the Holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice at the Corporate Trust Office and upon proof of holding as provided in this Article, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the Holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders and owners of such Security and of any Securities issued in exchange or substitution therefor, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon any such Security. Any action taken by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate Principal

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amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of all the Securities affected by such action.
ARTICLE 7    
SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES
Section 7.01.    Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders. The Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of its Board of Directors certified to the Trustee, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for one or more of the following purposes:
(c)    to evidence the succession of another corporation to the Issuer, or successive successions, and the assumption by the successor corporation of the covenants, agreements and obligations of the Issuer pursuant to Article 8;
(d)    (i) to cure any ambiguity or to correct or supplement any provision contained herein or in any supplemental indenture which may be defective or inconsistent with any other provision contained herein or in any supplemental indenture, (ii) to conform the terms of Securities to the description thereof in the prospectus and prospectus supplement (or similar offering document) offering such Securities or (iii) to make such other provisions in regard to matters or questions arising under this Indenture or under any supplemental indenture as the Board of Directors may deem necessary or desirable and which shall not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of the Securities in any material respect;
(e)    to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series as permitted by Sections 2.01 and 2.03;
(f)    to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 5.10;
(g)    to comply with any requirements of the Commission in connection with the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939;
(h)    to provide for uncertificated or Unregistered Securities and to make all appropriate changes for such purpose;
(i)    to make any change that would not reasonably be expected to adversely affect the rights of any Holder in any material respect;
(j)    to add to the covenants of the Issuer such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions as its Board of Directors shall consider to be for the protection of

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the Holders of Securities, and with respect to which the Trustee has received an Opinion of Counsel to a similar effect, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default; provided, that in respect of any such additional covenant, restriction, condition or provision such supplemental indenture may provide for a particular period of grace after default (which period may be shorter or longer than that allowed in the case of other defaults) or may provide for an immediate enforcement upon such an Event of Default or may limit the remedies available to the Trustee upon such an Event of Default or may limit the right of the Holders of a majority in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of such series to waive such an Event of Default; or
(k)    to make any change so long as no Securities are Outstanding.
The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Issuer in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained and to accept the conveyance, transfer, assignment, mortgage or pledge of any property thereunder, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.
Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this section may be executed without the consent of the Holders of any of the Securities at the time outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 7.02.
Section 7.02.    Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders. With the consent (evidenced as provided in Article 6) of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities at the time Outstanding of all series affected by such supplemental indenture (voting as one class), the Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of its Board of Directors, and the Trustee may, from time to time and at any time, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each such series; provided, that no such supplemental indenture shall without the consent of each Holder affected thereby:
(iii)    change the stated maturity of the Principal of, or the time of payment of any installment of interest on, such Holder’s Security;
(iv)    reduce the Principal thereof or the rate of interest thereon, or any premium payable with respect thereto;
(v)    change any place of payment where, or the currency in which, any Security or any premium or the interest thereon is payable;
(vi)    change the provisions for calculating any redemption or repurchase price, including the definitions relating thereto;

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(vii)    make any change to Section 4.07 or Section 4.10 (except to include other provisions subject to Section 4.10);
(viii)    reduce the percentage in Principal amount of outstanding Securities of the relevant series the consent of whose Holders is required for any such supplemental indenture, for any waiver of compliance with any provisions of this Indenture or any defaults and their consequences provided for in this Indenture;
(ix)    alter or impair the right to convert any Security at the rate and upon the terms provided in Article 12;
(x)    waive a default in the payment of Principal of or interest on any Security of such Holder (except pursuant to a rescission of acceleration pursuant to Section 4.01);
(xi)    adversely affect the rights of such Holder under any mandatory redemption or repurchase provision or any right of redemption or repurchase at the option of such Holder;
(xii)    modify any of the provisions of this Section 7.02, except to increase any such percentage or to provide that certain other provisions of this Indenture cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each outstanding Security affected thereby; or
(xiii)    change or waive any provision that, pursuant to a board resolution or indenture supplemental hereto establishing the terms of one or more series of Securities, is prohibited to be so changed or waived.
Upon the written request of the Issuer, accompanied by a copy of a resolution of the Board of Directors certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders as aforesaid and other documents, if any, required by Section 6.01, the Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.
It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders under this section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.
Promptly after the execution by the Issuer and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Issuer shall mail a notice thereof by first class mail to the Holders of Securities of each series affected thereby at their

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addresses as they shall appear on the registry books of the Issuer, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture. Any failure of the Issuer to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.
Section 7.03.    Effect of Supplemental Indenture. Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions hereof, this Indenture shall be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Issuer and the Holders of Securities of each series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.
Section 7.04.    Documents to Be Given to Trustee. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Sections 5.01 and 5.02, may receive an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article 7 complies with the applicable provisions of this Indenture.
Section 7.05.    Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures. Securities of any series authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article may bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee for such series as to any matter provided for by such supplemental indenture or as to any action taken at any such meeting. If the Issuer or the Trustee shall so determine, new Securities of any series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee and the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Issuer, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of such series then outstanding.
ARTICLE 8    
CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE
Section 8.01.    Issuer May Consolidate, etc., on Certain Terms. The Issuer covenants that it will not merge or consolidate with any other Person or sell, convey, transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its property and assets to any Person (other than a consolidation with or merger with or into or a sale, conveyance, transfer, lease or other disposition to a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary with a positive net worth; provided that, in connection with any such merger of the Issuer with a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary, no consideration (other than common stock) in the surviving person or the Issuer shall be issued or distributed to the stockholders of the Issuer), unless (xiv) either (x) the Issuer shall be the continuing corporation, or the successor corporation or (y) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or that acquires by sale or conveyance substantially all the assets of the Issuer (if other than the

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Issuer) shall be a corporation or limited liability company organized and validly existing under the laws of the United States of America or any jurisdiction thereof and shall expressly assume the due and punctual payment of the Principal of and interest on all the Securities, according to their tenor, and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions of this Indenture to be performed or observed by the Issuer, by supplemental indenture satisfactory to the Trustee, executed and delivered to the Trustee by such Person, (xv) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing and (xvi) the Issuer delivers to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and Opinion of Counsel, in each case stating that such consolidation, merger or transfer and such supplemental indenture complies with this Section 8.01 and that all conditions precedent provided for herein relating to such transaction have been complied with; provided, however, that the foregoing limitations shall not apply if, in the good faith determination of the Board of Directors, whose determination shall be evidenced by a board resolution certified to the Trustee, the principal purpose of such transaction is to change the state of incorporation of the Issuer; and provided further that any such transaction shall not have as one of its purposes the evasion of the foregoing limitations.
Section 8.02.    Successor Corporation Substituted. In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer, lease or other disposition, and following such an assumption by the successor Person, such successor Person shall succeed to and be substituted for the Issuer, with the same effect as if it had been named herein. Such successor Person may cause to be signed, and may issue either in its own name or in the name of the Issuer prior to such succession any or all of the Securities issuable hereunder which theretofore shall not have been signed by the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee; and, upon the order of such successor Person instead of the Issuer and subject to all the terms, conditions and limitations in this Indenture prescribed, the Trustee, pursuant to the terms hereof, shall authenticate and shall deliver any Securities which previously shall have been signed and delivered by the officers of the Issuer to the Trustee for authentication, and any Securities which such successor Person thereafter shall cause to be signed and delivered to the Trustee for that purpose. All of the Securities so issued shall in all respects have the same legal rank and benefit under this Indenture as the Securities theretofore or thereafter issued in accordance with the terms of this Indenture as though all of such Securities had been issued at the date of the execution hereof.
In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer, lease or other disposition, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.
Upon the assumption by the successor Person in the manner described in this Article, the Issuer shall be discharged from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

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ARTICLE 9    
DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE
Section 9.01.    Defeasance Within One Year of Payment. Except as otherwise provided in this Section 9.01, the Issuer may terminate its obligations under the Securities of any series and this Indenture with respect to Securities of such series if:
(xvii)    all Securities of such series previously authenticated and delivered (other than destroyed, lost or wrongfully taken Securities of such series that have been replaced or Securities of such series for whose payment money or securities have theretofore been held in trust and thereafter repaid to the Issuer, as provided in Section 9.05) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation and the Issuer has paid all sums payable by it hereunder; or
(xviii)    (A) the Securities of such series mature within one year or all of them are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for giving the notice of redemption, (B) the Issuer irrevocably deposits in trust with the Trustee, as trust funds solely for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities for that purpose, money or U.S. Government Obligations or a combination thereof sufficient (unless such funds consist solely of money, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee), without consideration of any reinvestment and after payment of all Federal, state and local taxes or other charges and assessments in respect thereof payable by the Trustee, to pay Principal of and interest on the Securities of such series to maturity or redemption, as the case may be, and to pay all other sums payable by it hereunder and (C) the Issuer delivers to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, in each case stating that all conditions precedent provided for herein relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series have been complied with.
With respect to the foregoing clause (i), only the Issuer’s obligations under Sections 5.06 and 9.05 in respect of the Securities of such series shall survive. With respect to the foregoing clause (ii), only the Issuer’s obligations in Sections 2.03 through 2.11, 3.02, 5.06, 5.09 and 9.05 in respect of the Securities of such series shall survive until such Securities of such series are no longer outstanding. Thereafter, only the Issuer’s obligations in Sections 5.06 and 9.05 in respect of the Securities of such series shall survive. After any such irrevocable deposit, the Trustee shall acknowledge in writing the discharge of the Issuer’s obligations under the Securities of such series and this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series except for those surviving obligations specified above.
Section 9.02.    Defeasance. Except as provided below, the Issuer will be deemed to have paid and will be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the Securities of any series and the provisions of this Indenture will no longer be in effect

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with respect to the Securities of such series (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Issuer, shall execute instruments in form and substance satisfactory to the Issuer and the Trustee acknowledging the same) if the following conditions shall have been satisfied:
(iv)    the Issuer has irrevocably deposited in trust with the Trustee as trust funds specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, Holders of the Securities of such series, for payment of the Principal of and interest on the Securities of such series, money or U.S. Government Obligations or a combination thereof sufficient (unless such funds consist solely of money, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee) without consideration of any reinvestment and after payment of all federal, state and local taxes or other charges and assessments in respect thereof payable by the Trustee, to pay and discharge the Principal of and accrued interest on the outstanding Securities of such series to maturity or earlier redemption (irrevocably provided for under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee), as the case may be;
(v)    such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other material agreement or instrument to which the Issuer is a party or by which it is bound;
(vi)    no default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit;
(vii)    the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee (1) either (x) a ruling directed to the Trustee received from the Internal Revenue Service to the effect that the Holders of the Securities of such series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the Issuer’s exercise of its option under this Section 9.02 and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and defeasance had not occurred or (y) an Opinion of Counsel to the same effect as the ruling described in clause (x) above and based upon a change in law and (2) an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of the Securities of such series have a valid security interest in the trust funds subject to no prior liens under the UCC; and
(viii)    the Issuer has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, in each case stating that all conditions precedent provided for herein relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section 9.02 of the Securities of such series have been complied with.
The Issuer’s obligations in Sections 2.03 through 2.11, 3.02, 5.06, 5.09 and 9.05 with respect to the Securities of such series shall survive until such Securities are no longer outstanding. Thereafter, only the Issuer’s obligations in Sections 5.06 and 9.05 shall survive.

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Section 9.03.    Covenant Defeasance. The Issuer may omit to comply with any term, provision or condition set forth in Sections 3.04, 3.06 or 3.08 (or any other specific covenant relating to the Securities of any series provided for in a Board Resolution or supplemental indenture pursuant to Section 2.03 which may by its terms be defeased pursuant to this Section 9.03), and such omission shall be deemed not to be an Event of Default under clause (c) of Section 4.01, with respect to the outstanding Securities of such series if:
(i)    the Issuer has irrevocably deposited in trust with the Trustee as trust funds solely for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series, for payment of the Principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of such series, money or U.S. Government Obligations or a combination thereof in an amount sufficient (unless such funds consist solely of money, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee) without consideration of any reinvestment and after payment of all Federal, state and local taxes or other charges and assessments in respect thereof payable by the Trustee, to pay and discharge the Principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such series to maturity or earlier redemption (irrevocably provided for under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee), as the case may be;
(ii)    such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other material agreement or instrument to which the Issuer is a party or by which it is bound;
(iii)    no default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit;
(iv)    the Issuer has delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (A) the Holders of the Securities of such series have a valid security interest in the trust funds subject to no prior liens under the UCC and (B) such Holders will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and covenant defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and defeasance had not occurred; and
(v)    the Issuer has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, in each case stating that all conditions precedent provided for herein relating to the covenant defeasance contemplated by this Section 9.03 of the Securities of such series have been complied with.
Section 9.04.    Application of Trust Money. Subject to Section 9.05, the Trustee or Paying Agent shall hold in trust money or U.S. Government Obligations deposited with it pursuant to 9.01, 9.02, or 9.03, as the case may be, in respect of the Securities of any series and shall apply the deposited money and the proceeds from deposited U.S. Government Obligations in accordance with the Securities of such series and this

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Indenture to the payment of Principal of and interest on the Securities of such series; provided that such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Issuer shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations deposited pursuant to 9.01, 9.02, or 9.03, as the case may be, or the Principal and interest received in respect thereof, other than any such tax, fee or other charge that by law is for the account of the Holders.
Section 9.05.    Repayment to Issuer. Subject to Sections 5.06, 9.01, the Trustee and the Paying Agent shall promptly pay to the Issuer upon request set forth in an Officers’ Certificate any money held by them at any time and not required to make payments hereunder and thereupon shall be relieved from all liability with respect to such money. Subject to applicable escheat or abandoned property laws, the Trustee and the Paying Agent shall pay to the Issuer upon written request any money held by them and required to make payments hereunder under this Indenture that remains unclaimed for two years; provided that the Trustee or such Paying Agent before being required to make any payment shall cause to be published at the expense of the Issuer once in an Authorized Newspaper or mail to each Holder entitled to such money at such Holder’s address (as set forth in the register) notice that such money remains unclaimed and that after a date specified therein (which shall be at least 30 days from the date of such publication or mailing) any unclaimed balance of such money then remaining will be repaid to the Issuer. After payment to the Issuer, Holders entitled to such money must look to the Issuer for payment as general creditors unless an abandoned property law designates another Person, and all liability of the Trustee and such Paying Agent with respect to such money shall cease.
ARTICLE 10    
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
Section 10.01.    Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers and Directors Exempt from Individual Liability. No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in any Security, or because of any indebtedness evidenced thereby, shall be had against any incorporator, as such, or against any past, present or future stockholder, officer, director or employee, as such, of the Issuer or of any successor Person thereof, either directly or through the Issuer or any successor Person thereof, under any rule of law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise, all such liability being expressly waived and released by the acceptance of the Securities by the Holders thereof and as part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.
Section 10.02.    Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Securityholders. Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, expressed or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any person, firm or corporation, other than the parties hereto and their successors and the Holders of the Securities, any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture or under any covenant or provision herein

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contained, all such covenants and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and their successors and of the Holders of the Securities.
Section 10.03.    Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture. All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements contained in this Indenture by or on behalf of the Issuer shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.
Section 10.04.    Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Securityholders. Any notice or demand which by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities to or on the Issuer may be given or served by being deposited postage prepaid, first-class mail (except as otherwise specifically provided herein) addressed (until another address of the Issuer is filed by the Issuer with the Trustee) to FormFactor, Inc. at 7005 Southfront Road, Livermore, California 94551, Attention: Chief Financial Officer. Any notice, direction, request or demand by the Issuer or any Securityholder to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made at the Corporate Trust Office.
Where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each Holder entitled thereto, at such Holder’s last address as it appears in the Security register. In any case where notice to Holders is given by mail, neither the failure to mail such notice, nor any defect in any notice so mailed, to any particular Holder shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders. Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the person entitled to receive such notice, either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.
In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice to the Issuer and Securityholders when such notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.
Section 10.05.    Officers’ Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to be Contained Therein. Upon any application or demand by the Issuer to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Issuer shall furnish to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

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Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture shall include (a) a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition, (b) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based, (c) a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with and (d) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.
Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by counsel, unless such officer knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous. Any certificate, statement or opinion of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, information with respect to which is in the possession of the Issuer, upon the certificate, statement or opinion of or representations by an officer or officers of the Issuer, unless such counsel knows that the certificate, statement or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.
Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer or of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to accounting matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by an accountant or firm of accountants in the employ of the Issuer, unless such officer or counsel, as the case may be, knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the accounting matters upon which his certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.
Any certificate or opinion of any independent firm of public accountants filed with the Trustee shall contain a statement that such firm is independent.
Section 10.06.    Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays. If the date of maturity of interest on or Principal of the Securities of any series or the date fixed for redemption or repayment of any such Security shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or Principal need not be made on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the date of maturity or the date fixed for redemption, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such date.
Section 10.07.    Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture with Trust Indenture Act of 1939. If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts

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with another provision incorporated in this Indenture by operation of Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, such incorporated provision shall control.
Section 10.08.    New York Law to Govern. This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract under the laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be construed in accordance with the laws of such State.
Section 10.09.    Counterparts. This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original; but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.
Section 10.10.    Effect of Headings. The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.
ARTICLE 11    
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES
Section 11.01.    Applicability of Article. The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to the Securities of any series which are redeemable before their maturity except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.03 for Securities of such series.
Section 11.02.    Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions. Notice of redemption to the Holders of Securities of any series to be redeemed as a whole or in part at the option of the Issuer shall be given by mailing notice of such redemption by first class mail, postage prepaid, at least 30 days and not more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption to such Holders of Securities of such series at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the registry books. Any notice which is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the Holder receives the notice. Failure to give notice by mail, or any defect in the notice to the Holder of any Security of a series designated for redemption as a whole or in part shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Security of such series.
The notice of redemption to each such Holder shall specify the CUSIP numbers of such Securities to be redeemed, the Principal amount of each Security of such series held by such Holder to be redeemed, the date fixed for redemption, the redemption price, the place or places of payment, that payment will be made upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in such notice and that on and after said date interest thereon or on the portions thereof to be redeemed will cease to accrue. In case any Security of a series is to be redeemed in part only the notice of redemption shall state the portion of the Principal amount thereof to be redeemed, the method the Trustee shall use to determine such Securities to be redeemed as specified in the last paragraph of this Section 11.02, if applicable, and shall state that on and after the date fixed for redemption, upon surrender

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of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in Principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.
The notice of redemption of Securities of any series to be redeemed at the option of the Issuer shall be given by the Issuer or, at the Issuer’s written request, by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Issuer.
By 11:00 a.m. (New York City time) on the redemption date specified in the notice of redemption given as provided in this Section, the Issuer will deposit with the Trustee or with one or more paying agents (or, if the Issuer is acting as its own paying agent, set aside, segregate and hold in trust as provided in Section 3.03) an amount of money sufficient to redeem on the redemption date all the Securities of such series so called for redemption at the appropriate redemption price, together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption. If less than all the outstanding Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee at least 70 days (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) prior to the date fixed for redemption an Officers’ Certificate stating the aggregate Principal amount of Securities to be redeemed.
In the case of the redemption of all of the Securities of a series outstanding, the Issuer shall notify the Trustee in writing of the redemption date 45 days (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) prior to the redemption date.
If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select, pro rata or by lot or in such manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair, Securities of such series to be redeemed in whole or in part. Securities of a series may be redeemed in part in multiples equal to the minimum authorized denomination for Securities of such series or any multiple thereof. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Issuer in writing of the Securities of such series selected for redemption and, in the case of any Securities of such series selected for partial redemption, the Principal amount thereof to be redeemed. For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities of any series shall relate, in the case of any Security redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the Principal amount of such Security which has been or is to be redeemed.
Section 11.03.    Payment of Securities Called for Redemption. If notice of redemption has been given as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption, and on and after said date (unless the Issuer shall default in the payment of such Securities at the redemption price, together with interest accrued to said date) interest on the Securities or portions of Securities so called for redemption shall cease to accrue and, except as provided in Section 5.05 and 9.04, such Securities shall cease from and after the date fixed for redemption to be entitled to any benefit or security under this Indenture, and the Holders thereof shall have no right in respect of such Securities except the right to receive the redemption price thereof and unpaid interest to the date fixed for redemption. On presentation and surrender of such Securities at a place

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of payment specified in said notice, said Securities or the specified portions thereof shall be paid and redeemed by the Issuer at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption; provided that any semiannual payment of interest becoming due on the date fixed for redemption shall be payable to the Holders of such Securities registered as such on the relevant record date subject to the terms and provisions of Section 2.07 hereof.
If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the Principal shall, until paid or duly provided for, bear interest from the date fixed for redemption at the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security) borne by the Security.
Upon presentation of any Security redeemed in part only, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to or on the order of the Holder thereof, at the expense of the Issuer, a new Security or Securities of such series, of authorized denominations, in Principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented, pursuant to Sections 2.04, 2.05 and 2.06.
Section 11.04.    Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption. Securities shall be excluded from eligibility for selection for redemption if they are identified by registration and certificate number in a written statement signed by an authorized officer of the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee at least 40 days prior to the last date on which notice of redemption may be given as being owned of record and beneficially by, and not pledged or hypothecated by either (a) the Issuer or (b) an entity specifically identified in such written statement directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer.
Section 11.05.    Conversion Arrangement On Call For Redemption. In connection with any redemption of Securities, the Issuer shall deposit the amount due in connection with such redemption as required by Section 11.02 or it may arrange for the purchase and conversion of any Securities called for redemption by an agreement with one or more investment bankers or other purchasers to purchase such Securities and to make the deposit required of it by Section 11.02 on its behalf by paying to the Trustee or the Paying Agent in trust for the Securityholders, on or before 10:00 a.m. New York time on the redemption date, an amount no less than the redemption price, together with interest, if any, accrued to the redemption date of such Securities, in immediately available funds. Notwithstanding anytime to the contrary contained in this Article 11, the obligation of the Issuer to pay the redemption price of such Securities, including all accrued interest, if any, shall be deemed to be satisfied and discharged to the extent such amount is so paid by such purchasers. If such an agreement is entered into, any Securities not duly surrendered for conversion by the Holders thereof may, at the option of the Issuer, be deemed, to the fullest extent permitted by law, acquired by such purchasers from such Holders and (notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in Article 12) surrendered by such purchasers for conversion, all as of immediately prior to the close of business on the last day on which Securities of such series called for redemption may be

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converted in accordance with this Indenture and the terms of such Securities, subject to payment of the above amount aforesaid. The Trustee or the Paying Agent shall hold and pay to the Securityholders whose Securities are selected for redemption any such amount paid to it in the same manner as it would monies deposited with it by the Issuer for the redemption of Securities. Without the Trustee’s and the Paying Agent’s prior written consent, no arrangement between the Issuer and such purchasers for the purchase and conversion of any Securities shall increase or otherwise affect any of the powers, duties, responsibilities or obligations of the Trustee as set forth in this Indenture, and the Issuer agrees to indemnify the Trustee from, and hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense arising out of or in connection with any such arrangement for the purchase and conversion of any Securities between the Issuer and such purchasers, including the costs and expenses incurred by the Trustee and the Paying Agent in the defense of any claim or liability arising out of or in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its powers, duties, responsibilities or obligations under this Indenture.
ARTICLE 12    
CONVERSION OF SECURITIES
Section 12.01.    Applicability of Article. Securities of any series which are convertible into Capital Stock at the option of the Securityholder shall be convertible in accordance with their terms and (unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.03 for Securities of any series) in accordance with this Article. Each reference in this Article 12 to “a Security” or ”the Securities” refers to the Securities of the particular series that is convertible into Capital Stock. Each reference in this Article to “Capital Stock” into which Securities of any series are convertible refers to the class of Capital Stock into which the Securities of such series are convertible in accordance with their terms (as specified as contemplated by Section 2.03). If more than one series of Securities with conversion privileges are outstanding at any time, the provisions of this Article 12 shall be applied separately to each such series.
Section 12.02.    Right of Securityholders to Convert Securities. Subject to and upon compliance with the terms of the Securities and the provisions of Section 11.05 and this Article 12, at the option of the Holder thereof, any Security of any series of any authorized denomination, or any portion of the Principal amount thereof which is $1,000 or any integral multiple of $1,000, may, at any time during the period specified in the Securities of such series, or in case such Security or portion thereof shall have been called for redemption, then in respect of such Security or portion thereof until and including, but not after (unless the Issuer shall default in payment due upon the redemption thereof) the close of business on the Business Day prior to the date fixed for redemption except that in the case of redemption at the option of the Securityholder, if specified in the terms of such Securities, such right shall terminate upon receipt of written notice of the exercise of such option, be converted into duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable shares of Capital Stock, as specified in such Security, at the conversion rate for each $1,000 Principal amount of Securities (such initial conversion rate reflecting an initial conversion price specified in such Security) in effect on the conversion date, or,

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in case an adjustment in the conversion rate has taken place pursuant to the provisions of Section 12.05, then at the applicable conversion rate as so adjusted, upon surrender of the Security or Securities, the Principal amount of which is so to be converted, to the Issuer at any time during usual business hours at the office or agency to be maintained by it in accordance with the provisions of Section 3.02, accompanied by a written notice of election to convert as provided in Section 12.03 and, if so required by the Issuer and the Trustee, by a written instrument or instruments of transfer in form satisfactory to the Issuer and the Trustee duly executed by the registered Holder or his attorney duly authorized in writing. All Securities surrendered for conversion shall, if surrendered to the Issuer or any conversion agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation and cancelled by it, or shall, if surrendered to the Trustee, be cancelled by it, as provided in Section 2.10.
The initial conversion price or conversion rate in respect of a series of Securities shall be as specified in the Securities of such series. The conversion price or conversion rate will be subject to adjustment on the terms set forth in Section 12.05 or such other or different terms, if any, as may be specified by Section 2.03 for Securities of such series. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to conversion of all of a Security also apply to conversion of a portion of it.
Section 12.03.    Issuance of Shares of Capital Stock on Conversion. As promptly as practicable after the surrender, as herein provided, of any Security or Securities for conversion, the Issuer shall deliver or cause to be delivered at its said office or agency to or upon the written order of the Holder of the Security or Securities so surrendered a certificate or certificates representing the number of duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable shares of Capital Stock into which such Security or Securities may be converted in accordance with the terms thereof and the provisions of this Article 12. Prior to delivery of such certificate or certificates, the Issuer shall require a written notice at its said office or agency from the Holder of the Security or Securities so surrendered stating that the Holder irrevocably elects to convert such Security or Securities, or, if less than the entire Principal amount thereof is to be converted, stating the portion thereof to be converted. Such notice shall also state the name or names (with address and social security or other taxpayer identification number) in which said certificate or certificates are to be issued. Such conversion shall be deemed to have been made at the time that such Security or Securities shall have been surrendered for conversion and such notice shall have been received by the Issuer or the Trustee, the rights of the Holder of such Security or Securities as a Securityholder shall cease at such time, the person or persons entitled to receive the shares of Capital Stock upon conversion of such Security or Securities shall be treated for all purposes as having become the record holder or holders of such shares of Capital Stock at such time and such conversion shall be at the conversion rate in effect at such time. In the case of any Security of any series which is converted in part only, upon such conversion, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to the Holder thereof, as requested by such Holder, a new Security or Securities of such series of authorized

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denominations in aggregate Principal amount equal to the unconverted portion of such Security.
If the last day on which a Security may be converted is not a Business Day in a place where a conversion agent is located, the Security may be surrendered to that conversion agent on the next succeeding day that is a Business Day.
The Issuer will not be required to deliver certificates for shares of Capital Stock upon conversion while its stock transfer books are closed for a meeting of shareholders or for the payment of dividends or for any other purpose, but certificates for shares of Capital Stock shall be delivered as soon as the stock transfer books shall again be opened.
Section 12.04.    No Payment or Adjustment for Interest or Dividends. Unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.03 for Securities of such series, Securities surrendered for conversion during the period from the close of business on any regular record date (or special record date for payment of defaulted interest) next preceding any interest payment date to the opening of business on such interest payment date (except Securities called for redemption on a redemption date within such period) when surrendered for conversion must be accompanied by payment of an amount equal to the interest thereon which the registered Holder is to receive on such interest payment date. Payment of interest shall be made, as of such interest payment date or such date, as the case may be, to the Holder of record of the Securities as of such regular, or special record date, as applicable. Except where Securities surrendered for conversion must be accompanied by payment as described above, no interest on converted Securities will be payable by the Issuer on any interest payment date subsequent to the date of conversion. No other payment or adjustment for interest or dividends is to be made upon conversion. Notwithstanding the foregoing, upon conversion of any Original Issue Discount Security, the fixed number of shares of Capital Stock into which such Security is convertible delivered by the Issuer to the Holder thereof shall be applied, first, to pay the accrued original issue discount attributable to the period from the date of issuance to the date of conversion of such Security, and, second, to pay the balance of the Principal amount of such Security.
Section 12.05.    Adjustment of Conversion Rate. Unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.03 for Securities of such series, the conversion rate for Securities in effect at any time shall be subject to adjustment as follows:
(a)    In case the Issuer shall (i) declare a dividend or make a distribution on the class of Capital Stock into which Securities of such series are convertible in shares of its Capital Stock, (ii) subdivide the outstanding shares of the class of Capital Stock into which Securities of such series are convertible into a greater number of shares, (iii) combine the outstanding shares of the class of Capital Stock into which Securities of such series are convertible into a smaller number of shares or (iv) issue by reclassification of the shares of the class of Capital Stock into which Securities of such series are convertible (including any such reclassification in connection with a consolidation or merger in which the Issuer is the continuing corporation) any shares, the conversion rate

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for the Securities of such series in effect at the time of the record subdivision, combination or reclassification, shall be proportionately adjusted so that the Holder of any Security of such series surrendered for conversion after such time shall be entitled to receive the number and kind of shares which he would have owned or have been entitled to receive had such Security been converted immediately prior to such time. Similar adjustments shall be made whenever any event listed above shall occur.
(b)    In case the Issuer shall fix a record date for the issuance of rights or warrants to all holders of the class of Capital Stock into which Securities of such series are convertible entitling them (for a period expiring within 45 days after such record date) to subscribe for or purchase shares of such class of Capital Stock (or securities convertible into shares of such class of Capital Stock) at a price per share (or, in the case of a right or warrant to purchase securities convertible into such class of Capital Stock, having a conversion price per share, after adding thereto the exercise price, computed on the basis of the maximum number of shares of such class of Capital Stock issuable upon conversion of such convertible securities, per share of such class of Capital Stock, so issuable) less than the current market price per share of such class of Capital Stock (as defined in subsection (e) below) on the date on which such issuance was declared or otherwise announced by the Issuer (the “Determination Date”), the number of shares of such class of Capital Stock into which each $1,000 Principal amount of Securities shall be convertible after such record date shall be determined by multiplying the number of shares of such class of Capital Stock into which such Principal amount of Securities was convertible immediately prior to such record date by a fraction, of which the numerator shall be the number of shares of such class of Capital Stock outstanding on the Determination Date plus the number of additional shares of such class of Capital Stock offered for subscription or purchase (or in the case of a right or warrant to purchase securities convertible into such class of Capital Stock, the aggregate number of additional shares of such class of Capital Stock into which the convertible securities so offered are initially convertible), and of which the denominator shall be the number of shares of such class of Capital Stock outstanding on the Determination Date plus the number of shares of such class of Capital Stock obtained by dividing the aggregate offering price of the total number of shares so offered (or, in the case of a right or warrant to purchase securities convertible into such class of Capital Stock, the aggregate initial conversion price of the convertible securities so offered, after adding thereto the aggregate exercise price of such rights or warrants computed on the basis of the maximum number of shares of such class of Capital Stock issuable upon conversion of such convertible securities) by such current market price. Shares of such class of Capital Stock of the Issuer owned by or held for the account of the Issuer shall not be deemed outstanding for the purpose of any such computation. Such adjustment shall be made successively whenever such a record date is fixed; and to the extent that shares of such class of Capital Stock are not delivered (or securities convertible into shares of such class of Capital Stock are not delivered) after the expiration of such rights or warrants (or, in the case of rights or warrants to purchase securities convertible into such class of Capital Stock once exercised, the expiration of the conversion right of such securities) the conversion rate shall be readjusted to the conversion rate which would then be in effect had the

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adjustments made upon the issuance of such rights or warrants (or securities convertible into shares) been made upon the basis of delivery of only the number of shares actually delivered. In the event that such rights or warrants are not so issued, the conversion rate shall again be adjusted to be the conversion rate which would then be in effect if such record date had not been fixed.
(c)    In case the Issuer shall fix a record date for the making of a distribution to all holders of the class of Capital Stock into which Securities of such series are convertible (including any such distribution made in connection with a consolidation or merger in which the Issuer is the continuing corporation) of evidences of its indebtedness or assets (excluding any cash dividends paid from retained earnings and dividends payable in Capital Stock for which adjustment is made pursuant to subsection (a) above or (d) below) or subscription rights or warrants (excluding subscription rights or warrants to purchase the class of Capital Stock into which Securities of such series are convertible), the number of shares of such class of Capital Stock into which each $1,000 Principal amount of Securities of such series shall be convertible after such record date shall be determined by multiplying the number of shares of such class of Capital Stock into which such Principal amount of Securities was convertible immediately prior to such record date by a fraction, of which the numerator shall be the fair market value of the assets of the Issuer, after deducting therefrom all liabilities of the Issuer and all preferences (including accrued but unpaid dividends) in respect of classes of Capital Stock having a preference with respect to the assets of the Issuer over such class of Capital Stock (all as determined by the Board of Directors, whose determination shall be conclusive, and described in a certificate signed by chairman of the Issuer’s Board of Directors, its president, any vice president, its treasurer, any assistant treasurer, its secretary or any assistant secretary, filed with the Trustee and each conversion agent) on such record date, and of which the denominator shall be such fair market value after deducting therefrom such liabilities and preferences, less the fair market value (as determined by the Board of Directors, whose determination shall be conclusive, and described in a statement filed with the Trustee and each conversion agent) of the assets or evidences of indebtedness, so distributed or of such subscription rights or warrants applicable, so distributed. Such adjustment shall be made successively whenever such a record date is fixed; and in the event that such distribution is not so made, the conversion rate shall again be adjusted to the conversion rate which would then be in effect if such record date had not been fixed.
(d)    In case the Issuer shall, by dividend or otherwise, distribute to all holders of its Capital Stock cash (excluding any dividend or distribution in connection with the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Issuer, whether voluntary or involuntary), then, in such case, unless the Issuer elects to reserve such cash for distribution to the Holders of the Securities upon the conversion of the Securities so that any such Holder converting Securities will receive upon such conversion, in addition to the shares of Capital Stock to which such Holder is entitled, the amount of cash which such Holder would have received if such Holder had, immediately prior to the record date for such distribution of cash, converted its Securities into Capital Stock, the conversion rate shall

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be adjusted so that the same shall equal the rate determined by multiplying the conversion rate in effect immediately prior to the record date by a fraction of which the denominator shall be the current market price of the Capital Stock (determined as provided in Section 12.05(e) on the record date less the amount of cash so distributed (and not excluded as provided above) applicable to one share of Capital Stock and the numerator shall be such current market price of the Capital Stock (determined as provided in Section 12.05(e)), such adjustment to be effective immediately prior to the opening of business on the day following the record date; provided, however, that in the event the portion of the cash so distributed applicable to one share of Capital Stock is equal to or greater than the current market price of the Capital Stock (determined as provided in (e)Section 12.05(e)) on the record date, in lieu of the foregoing adjustment, adequate provision shall be made so that each Securityholder shall have the right to receive upon conversion the amount of cash such Holder would have received had such Holder converted each Security on the record date. If such dividend or distribution is not so paid or made, the conversion rate shall again be adjusted to be the conversion rate which would then be in effect if such dividend or distribution had not been declared.
(e)    For the purpose of any computation under subsections (b) and (d) above and Section 12.06, the current market price per share of the Capital Stock on any date as of which such price is to be computed shall mean the average of the Closing Prices for the 30 consecutive Business Days commencing 45 Business Days before such date.
(f)    No adjustment in the conversion rate shall be required unless such adjustment would require a cumulative increase or decrease of at least 1% in such rate; provided, however, that any adjustments which by reason of this subsection (f) are not required to be made shall be carried forward and taken into account in any subsequent adjustment; and provided further, that adjustments shall be required and made in accordance with the provisions of this Article 12 (other than this subsection (f)) not later than such time as may be required in order to preserve the tax-free nature of a States income tax purposes to the Holders of Securities or the class of Capital Stock into which such Securities are convertible. All calculations under this Article 12 shall be made to the nearest cent or to the nearest one-thousandth of a share, as the case may be. Anything in this Section 12.05 to the contrary notwithstanding, the Issuer shall be entitled to make such adjustments in the conversion rate, in addition to those required by this Section 12.05, as it in its discretion shall determine to be advisable in order that any stock dividend, subdivision of shares, distribution of rights to purchase stock or securities, or distribution of securities convertible into or exchangeable for stock hereafter made by the Issuer to its shareholders shall not be taxable for United States income tax purposes.
(g)    Whenever the conversion rate is adjusted, as herein provided, the Issuer shall promptly file with the Trustee and with the office or agency maintained by the Issuer for the conversion of Securities of such series pursuant to Section 3.02, a certificate of a firm of independent public accountants of recognized national standing selected by the Board of Directors (who may be the regular accountants employed by the Issuer) setting forth the conversion rate after such adjustment and setting forth a brief

60
    



statement of the facts requiring such adjustment and a computation thereof. Such certificate shall be conclusive evidence of the correctness of such adjustment. Neither the Trustee nor any conversion agent shall be under any duty or responsibility with respect to any such certificate or any facts or computations set forth therein, except to exhibit said certificate from time to time to any Securityholder of such series desiring to inspect the same. The Issuer shall promptly cause a notice setting forth the adjusted conversion rate to be mailed to the Holders of Securities of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the register of the Issuer.
(h)    In the event that at any time, as a result of shares of any other class of Capital Stock becoming issuable in exchange or substitution for or in lieu of shares of the class of Capital Stock into which such Securities are convertible or as a result of an adjustment made pursuant to subsection (a) above, the Holder of any Security of such series thereafter surrendered for conversion shall become entitled to receive any shares of the Issuer other than shares of the class of Capital Stock into which the Issuer of such series are convertible, thereafter the number of such other shares so receivable upon conversion of any Security shall be subject to adjustment from time to time in a manner and on terms as nearly equivalent as practicable to the provisions with respect to the class of Capital Stock into which the Securities of such series are convertible contained in subsections (a) to (f), inclusive, above, and the provisions of this Article 12 with respect to the class of Capital Stock into which the Securities of such series are convertible shall apply on like terms to any such other shares.
(i)    The conversion rate with respect to any Original Issue Discount Security, the terms of which provide for convertibility, shall not be adjusted during the term of such Original Issue Discount Security for accrued original issue discount.
(j)    In the event that the Securities of any series are convertible into more than one class of Capital Stock, the provisions of this Section 12.05 shall apply separately to events affecting each such class.
Section 12.06.    No Fractional Shares to Be Issued. No fractional shares of Capital Stock shall be issued upon conversions of Securities. If more than one Security of any series shall be surrendered for conversion at one time by the same Holder, the number of full shares which shall be issuable upon conversion thereof shall be computed on the basis of the aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of such series (or specified portions thereof to the extent permitted hereby) so surrendered. Instead of a fraction of a share of Capital Stock which would otherwise be issuable upon conversion of any Security or Securities (or specified portions thereof), the Issuer shall pay a cash adjustment in respect of such fraction of a share in an amount equal to the same fractional interest of the current market price (as defined in Section 12.05) per share of Capital Stock on the Business Day next preceding the day of conversion.
Section 12.07.    Preservation of Conversion Rights Upon Consolidation, Merger, Sale or Conveyance. In case of any consolidation of the Issuer with, or merger of the Issuer into, any other corporation (other than a consolidation or merger in which the

61
    



Issuer is the continuing corporation), or in the case of any sale or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Issuer, the corporation formed by such consolidation or the corporation into which the Issuer shall have been merged or the corporation which shall have acquired such assets, as the case may be, shall execute and deliver to the Trustee, a supplemental indenture, subject to the provisions of Article 7 and 8 as they relate to supplemental indentures, providing that the Holder of each Security then Outstanding of a series which was convertible into Capital Stock shall have the right thereafter to convert such Security into the kind and amount of shares of stock and other securities and property, including cash, receivable upon such consolidation, merger, sale or transfer by a holder of the number of shares of Capital Stock of the Issuer into which such Securities might have been converted immediately prior to such consolidation, merger, sale or transfer. Such supplemental indenture shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as then in effect and shall provide for adjustments which shall be as nearly equivalent as may be practicable to the adjustments provided for in this Article 12. Neither the Trustee nor any conversion agent shall be under any responsibility to determine the correctness of any provision contained in any such supplemental indenture relating either to the kind or amount of shares of stock or other securities or property receivable by Securityholders upon the conversion of their Securities after any such consolidation, merger, sale or transfer, or to any adjustment to be made with respect there to and, subject to the provisions of Article 5, may accept as conclusive evidence of the correctness of any such provisions, and shall be protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel with respect thereto. If in the case of any such consolidation, merger, sale or transfer, the stock or other securities and property receivable by a Holder of the Securities includes stock or other securities and property of a corporation other than the successor or purchasing corporation, then such supplemental indenture shall also be executed by such other corporation and shall contain such additional provisions to protect the interests of the Holders of the Securities as the Board of Directors shall reasonably consider necessary. The above provisions of this Section 12.07 shall similarly apply to successive consolidations, mergers, sales or transfers.
Section 12.08.    Notice to Security Holders of a Series Prior to Taking Certain Types of Action. With respect to the Securities of any series, in case:
(a)    the Issuer shall authorize the issuance to all holders of the class of Capital Stock into which Securities of such series are convertible of rights or warrants to subscribe for or purchase shares of its Capital Stock or of any other right;
(b)    the Issuer shall authorize the distribution to all holders of the class of Capital Stock into which Securities of such series are convertible of evidences of its indebtedness or assets (except for the exclusions with respect to certain dividends set forth in Section 12.05(c));
(c)    of any subdivision, combination or reclassification of the class of Capital Stock into which Securities of such series are convertible or of any consolidation or merger to which the Issuer is a party and for which approval by the shareholders of the

62
    



Issuer is required, or of the sale or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Issuer; or
(d)    of the voluntary or involuntary dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the Issuer;
then the Issuer shall cause to be filed with the Trustee and at the office or agency maintained for the purpose of conversion of Securities of such series pursuant to Section 3.02, and shall cause to be mailed to the Holders of Securities of such series, at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the register of the Issuer, at least 10 days prior to the applicable record date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (i) the date as of which the holders of such class of Capital Stock to be entitled to receive any such rights, warrants or distribution are to be determined, or (ii) the date on which any such subdivision, combination, reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer, dissolution, liquidation, winding up or other action is expected to become effective, and the date as of which it is expected that holders of record of such class of Capital Stock shall be entitled to exchange their Capital Stock of such class for securities or other property, if any, deliverable upon such subdivision, combination, reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer, dissolution, liquidation, winding up or other action. The failure to give the notice required by this Section 12.08 or any defect therein shall not affect the legality or validity of any distribution, right, warrant, subdivision, combination, reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer, dissolution, liquidation, winding up or other action, or the vote upon any of the foregoing. Such notice shall also be published by and at the expense of the Issuer not later than the aforesaid filing date at least once in an Authorized Newspaper.
Section 12.09.    Covenant to Reserve Shares for Issuance on Conversion of Securities. The Issuer covenants that at all times it will reserve and keep available out of each class of its authorized Capital Stock, free from preemptive rights, solely for the purpose of issue upon conversion of Securities of any series as herein provided, such number of shares of Capital Stock of such class as shall then be issuable upon the conversion of all Outstanding Securities of such series. The Issuer covenants that an shares of Capital Stock which shall be so issuable shall, when issued or delivered, be duly and validly issued shares of the class of authorized Capital Stock into which Securities of such series are convertible, and shall be fully paid and nonassessable, free of all liens and charges and not subject to preemptive rights and that, upon conversion, the appropriate capital stock accounts of the Issuer will be duly credited.
Section 12.10.    Compliance with Governmental Requirements. The Issuer covenants that if any shares of Capital Stock required to be reserved for purposes of conversion of Securities hereunder require registration or listing with or approval of any governmental authority under any Federal or State law, pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or any national or regional securities exchange on which such Capital Stock is listed at the time of delivery of any shares of such Capital Stock, before such shares may be issued upon

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conversion, the Issuer will use reasonable efforts to cause such shares to be duly registered, listed or approved, as the case may be.
Section 12.11.    Payment of Taxes Upon Certificates for Shares Issued Upon Conversion. The issuance of certificates for shares of Capital Stock upon the conversion of Securities shall be made without charge to the converting Securityholders for any tax (including, without limitation, all documentary and stamp taxes) in respect of the issuance and delivery of such certificates, and such certificates shall be issued in the respective names of, or in such names as may be directed by, the Holders of the Securities converted; provided, however, that the Issuer shall not be required to pay any tax which may be payable in respect of any transfer involved in the issuance and delivery of any such certificate in a name other than that of the Holder of the Security converted, and the Issuer shall not be required to issue or deliver such certificates unless or until the person or persons requesting the issuance thereof shall have paid to the Issuer the amount of such tax or shall have established to the satisfaction of the Issuer that such tax has been paid.
Section 12.12.    Trustee’s Duties with Respect to Conversion Provisions. The Trustee and any conversion agent shall not at any time be under any duty or responsibility to any Securityholder to determine whether any facts exist which may require any adjustment of the conversion rate or conversion price, or with respect to the nature or extent of any such adjustment when made, or with respect to the method employed, or herein or in any supplemental indenture provided to be employed, in making the same. Neither the Trustee nor any conversion agent shall be accountable with respect to the registration under securities laws, listing, validity or value (or the kind or amount) of any shares of Capital Stock, or of any other securities or property, which may at any time be issued or delivered upon the conversion of any Security; and neither the Trustee nor any conversion agent makes any representation with respect thereto. Neither the Trustee nor any conversion agent shall be responsible for any failure of the Issuer to make any cash payment or to issue, transfer or deliver any shares of stock or stock certificates or other securities or property upon the surrender of any Security for the purpose of conversion; and the Trustee, subject to the provisions of Article 5, and any conversion agent shall not be responsible for any failure of the Issuer to comply with any of the covenants of the Issuer contained in this Article 12.


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed, as of the first date written above.

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FORMFACTOR, INC., as Issuer
By:
 
 
Name:
 
Title:



●, as Trustee
By:
 
 
Name:
 
Title:





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FORM OF NOTE
UNLESS AND UNTIL IT IS EXCHANGED IN WHOLE OR IN PART FOR SECURITIES IN DEFINITIVE REGISTERED FORM, THIS SECURITY MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITORY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY. UNLESS THIS SECURITY IS PRESENTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF THE DEPOSITORY TRUST COMPANY, A NEW YORK CORPORATION (“DTC”), TO THE COMPANY OR ITS AGENT FOR REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER, EXCHANGE OR PAYMENT, AND ANY SECURITY ISSUED IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF CEDE & CO. OR IN SUCH OTHER NAME AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC (AND ANY PAYMENT IS MADE TO CEDE & CO. OR TO SUCH OTHER ENTITY AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC), ANY TRANSFER, PLEDGE OR OTHER USE HEREOF FOR VALUE OR OTHERWISE BY OR TO ANY PERSON IS WRONGFUL INASMUCH AS THE REGISTERED OWNER HEREOF, CEDE & CO., HAS AN INTEREST HEREIN.

1
    




FORMFACTOR, INC.
● % Senior Note Due ●
No. ●    CUSIP No.: ●
    $ ●
FORMFACTOR, INC., a Delaware corporation (“Issuer”, which term includes any successor corporation), for value received promises to pay to CEDE & CO. or its registered assigns, the principal sum of ● on ●.
Interest Payment Dates: ● and ● (each, an “Interest Payment Date”), commencing on ●. Interest Record Dates: ● and ● (each, an “Interest Record Date”).
Reference is made to the further provisions of this Security contained herein, which will for all purposes have the same effect as if set forth at this place.


2
    




IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Issuer has caused this Security to be signed manually or by facsimile by its duly authorized officer.
FORMFACTOR, INC.
By:
 
 
Name:
 
Title:





3
    




This is one of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.
●, as Trustee
By:
 
 
Authorized Signatory





4
    



(REVERSE OF SECURITY)
FORMFACTOR, INC.
●% Senior Note Due ●
1.Interest.
FORMFACTOR, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Issuer”), promises to pay interest on the Principal amount of this Security at the rate per annum shown above. Cash interest on the Securities will accrue from the most recent date to which interest has been paid or, if no interest has been paid, from ●. The Issuer will pay interest semi-annually in arrears on each Interest Payment Date, commencing ●. Interest will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.
The Issuer shall pay interest on overdue Principal from time to time on demand at the rate borne by the Securities and on overdue installments of interest (without regard to any applicable grace periods) to the extent lawful.
2.    Method of Payment.
The Issuer shall pay interest on the Securities (except defaulted interest) to the persons who are the registered Holders at the close of business on the Interest Record Date immediately preceding the Interest Payment Date notwithstanding any transfer or exchange of such Security subsequent to such Interest Record Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date. Holders must surrender Securities to the Trustee to collect Principal payments. The Issuer shall pay Principal and interest in money of the United States that at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts (“U.S. Legal Tender”). However, the payments of interest, and any portion of the Principal (other than interest payable at maturity or on any redemption or repayment date or the final payment of Principal) shall be made by the Paying Agent, upon receipt from the Issuer of immediately available funds by 11:00 a.m., New York City time (or such other time as may be agreed to between the Issuer and the Paying Agent or the Issuer), directly to a Holder (by Federal funds wire transfer or otherwise) if the Holder has delivered written instructions to the Trustee 15 days prior to such payment date requesting that such payment will be so made and designating the bank account to which such payments shall be so made and in the case of payments of Principal surrenders the same to the Trustee in exchange for a Security or Securities aggregating the same principal amount as the unredeemed Principal amount of the Securities surrendered.
3.    Paying Agent.
Initially, ● (the “Trustee”) will act as Paying Agent. The Issuer may change any Paying Agent without notice to the Holders.

1
    



4.    Indenture.
The Issuer issued the Securities under an Indenture, dated as of ● (the “Indenture”), between the Issuer and the Trustee. Capitalized terms herein are used as defined in the Indenture unless otherwise defined herein. The terms of the Securities include those stated in the Indenture and those made part of the Indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S.C. Sections 77aaa-77bbbb) (the “TIA”), as in effect on the date of the Indenture until such time as the Indenture is qualified under the TIA, and thereafter as in effect on the date on which the Indenture is qualified under the TIA. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein, the Securities are subject to all such terms, and Holders of Securities are referred to the Indenture and the TIA for a statement of them. To the extent the terms of the Indenture and this Security are inconsistent, the terms of the Indenture shall govern.
5.    Denominations; Transfer; Exchange.
The Securities are in registered form, without coupons, in denominations of $1,000 and multiples of $1,000. A Holder shall register the transfer of or exchange Securities in accordance with the Indenture. The Issuer may require a Holder, among other things, to furnish appropriate endorsements and transfer documents and to pay certain transfer taxes or similar governmental charges payable in connection therewith as permitted by the Indenture. The Issuer need not issue, authenticate, register the transfer of or exchange any Securities or portions thereof for a period of fifteen (15) days before such series is selected for redemption, nor need the Issuer register the transfer or exchange of any security selected for redemption in whole or in part.
6.    Persons Deemed Owners.
The registered Holder of a Security shall be treated as the owner of it for all purposes.
7.    Unclaimed Funds.
If funds for the payment of Principal or interest remain unclaimed for two years, the Trustee and the Paying Agent will repay the funds to the Issuer at its written request. After that, all liability of the Trustee and such Paying Agent with respect to such funds shall cease.
8.    Legal Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance.
The Issuer may be discharged from its obligations under the Securities and under the Indenture with respect to the Securities except for certain provisions thereof, and may be discharged from obligations to comply with certain covenants contained in the Securities and in the Indenture with respect to the Securities, in each case upon satisfaction of certain conditions specified in the Indenture.

2
    



9.    Amendment; Supplement; Waiver.
Subject to certain exceptions, the Securities and the provisions of the Indenture relating to the Securities may be amended or supplemented with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities then outstanding, and any existing Default or Event of Default or compliance with certain provisions may be waived with the consent of the Holders of a majority in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities then outstanding. Without notice to or consent of any Holder, the parties thereto may amend or supplement the Indenture and the Securities to, among other things, cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities or comply with any requirements of the Commission in connection with the qualification of the Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act, or make any other change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Holder of a Security.
10.    Defaults and Remedies.
If an Event of Default (other than certain bankruptcy Events of Default with respect to the Issuer) occurs and is continuing, the Trustee or the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate Principal amount of Securities then outstanding may declare all of the Securities to be due and payable immediately in the manner and with the effect provided in the Indenture. If a bankruptcy Event of Default with respect to the Issuer occurs and is continuing, all the Securities shall be immediately due and payable immediately in the manner and with the effect provided in the Indenture without any notice or other action on the part of the Trustee or any Holder. Holders of Securities may not enforce the Indenture or the Securities except as provided in the Indenture. The Trustee is not obligated to enforce the Indenture or the Securities unless it has received indemnity satisfactory to it. The Indenture permits, subject to certain limitations therein provided, Holders of a majority in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities then outstanding to direct the Trustee in its exercise of any trust or power. The Trustee may withhold from Holders of Securities notice of certain continuing Defaults or Events of Default if it determines that withholding notice is in their interest.
11.    Conversion.
Reference is made to the Indenture, including, without limitation, provisions giving the Holder of this Security the right to convert this Security into Capital Stock of the Issuer on the terms and subject to the limitations as more fully specified in the Indenture. The initial conversion rate for this Security is ●. This conversion rate is subject to modification as provided in the Indenture. Such further provisions shall for all purposes have the same effect as though fully set forth at this place.
12.    Trustee Dealings with Issuer.

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The Trustee under the Indenture, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Issuer as if it were not the Trustee.
13.    No Recourse Against Others.
No stockholder, director, officer, employee or incorporator, as such, of the Issuer or any successor Person thereof shall have any liability for any obligation under the Securities or the Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. Each Holder of a Security by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issuance of the Securities.
14.    Authentication.
This Security shall not be valid until the Trustee manually signs the certificate of authentication on this Security.
15.    Abbreviations and Defined Terms.
Customary abbreviations may be used in the name of a Holder of a Security or an assignee, such as: TEN COM (= tenants in common), TEN ENT (= tenants by the entireties), JT TEN (= joint tenants with right of survivorship and not as tenants in common), CUST (= Custodian), and U/G/M/A (= Uniform Gifts to Minors Act).
16.    CUSIP Numbers.
Pursuant to a recommendation promulgated by the Committee on Uniform Security Identification Procedures, the Issuer has caused CUSIP numbers to be printed on the Securities as a convenience to the Holders of the Securities. No representation is made as to the accuracy of such numbers as printed on the Securities and reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed hereon.
17.    Governing Law.
The laws of the State of New York shall govern the Indenture and this Security thereof.



4
    



ASSIGNMENT FORM
I or we assign and transfer this Security to
(Print or type name, address and zip code of assignee or transferee)
(Insert Social Security or other identifying number of assignee or transferee)
and irrevocably appoint ___________________ agent to transfer this Security on the books of the Issuer. The agent may substitute another to act for him.
Dated:
 
Signed:
 
 
(Signed exactly as name appears on the other side of this Security)
Signature Guarantee:
 
 
Participant in a recognized Signature Guarantee Medallion Program (or other signature guarantor program reasonably acceptable to the Trustee)


1
    
Exhibit 4.4



Exhibit 4.4
FORMFACTOR, INC., as Issuer

and


●, as Trustee

INDENTURE


Dated as of ●

Subordinated Debt Securities



    



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
PAGE
DEFINITIONS
 
 
Section 1.01.  Certain Terms Defined
1
 
 
SECURITIES
 
 
Section 2.01.  Forms Generally
9
Section 2.02.  Form of Trustee’s Certification of Authentication
9
Section 2.03.  Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series
9
Section 2.04.  Authentication and Delivery of Securities
11
Section 2.05.  Execution of Securities
12
Section 2.06.  Certificate of Authentication
13
Section 2.07.  Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest
13
Section 2.08.  Registration, Transfer and Exchange
13
Section 2.09.  Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities
16
Section 2.10.  Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof
17
Section 2.11.  Temporary Securities
17
Section 2.12.  Computation of Interest
18
Section 2.13.  CUSIP Numbers
18
 
 
COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE
 
 
Section 3.01.  Payment of Principal and Interest
18
Section 3.02.  Offices for Payments, etc
19
Section 3.03.  Paying Agents
19
Section 3.04.  Certificate of the Issuer
20
Section 3.05.  List of Securityholders
20
Section 3.06.  Reports by the Issuer
21
Section 3.07.  Corporate Existence
21
Section 3.08.  Restrictions on Mergers, Sales and Consolidations
21
Section 3.09.  Further Assurances
21
 
 
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF
DEFAULT
 
 
Section 4.01.  Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default    
22
Section 4.02.  Collection of Indebtedness by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt
24
Section 4.03.  Application of Proceeds
26
Section 4.04.  Suits for Enforcement
27

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Section 4.05.  Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings
27
Section 4.06.  Limitations on Suits by Securityholder
27
Section 4.07.  Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits    
28
Section 4.08.  Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default
28
Section 4.09.  Control by Securityholders
28
Section 4.10.  Waiver of Past Defaults
29
Section 4.11.  Trustee to Give Notice of Default, But May Withhold in Certain Circumstances
29
Section 4.12.  Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs
29
 
 
CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 
 
Section 5.01.  Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee
30
Section 5.02.  Certain Rights of the Trustee
31
Section 5.03.  Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof
33
Section 5.04.  Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, etc
33
Section 5.05.  Monies Held by Trustee
33
Section 5.06.  Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim
33
Section 5.07.  Right of Trustee to Rely on Officers’ Certificate, etc
34
Section 5.08.  Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee
34
Section 5.09.  Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee
34
Section 5.10.  Acceptance of Appointment by Successor
35
Section 5.11.  Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee
36
Section 5.12.  Reports to the Trustee
37
 
 
CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS
 
 
Section 6.01.  Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders
37
Section 6.02.  Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities; Record Date
37
Section 6.03.  Holders to be Treated as Owners
38
Section 6.04.  Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding
38
Section 6.05.  Right of Revocation of Action Taken
39
 
 
SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES
 
 
Section 7.01.  Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders
39
Section 7.02.  Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders
40
Section 7.03.  Effect of Supplemental Indenture
42

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Section 7.04.  Documents to Be Given to Trustee
42
Section 7.05.  Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures
42
 
 
CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

 
 
Section 8.01.  Issuer May Consolidate, etc., on Certain Terms
43
Section 8.02.  Successor Corporation Substituted
43
 
 
DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE

 
 
Section 9.01.  Defeasance Within One Year of Payment
44
Section 9.02.  Defeasance
45
Section 9.03.  Covenant Defeasance
46
Section 9.04.  Application of Trust Money
47
Section 9.05.  Repayment to Issuer
47
 
 
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
 
 
Section 10.01.  Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers and Directors Exempt from Individual Liability
47
Section 10.02.  Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Securityholders
48
Section 10.03.  Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture
48
Section 10.04.  Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Securityholders
48
Section 10.05.  Officers’ Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to be Contained Therein
48
Section 10.06.  Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays
49
Section 10.07.  Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture with Trust Indenture Act of 1939
50
Section 10.08.  New York Law to Govern
50
Section 10.09.  Counterparts
50
Section 10.10.  Effect of Headings
50
 
 
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES
 
 
Section 11.01.  Applicability of Article
50
Section 11.02.  Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions
50
Section 11.03.  Payment of Securities Called for Redemption
51
Section 11.04.  Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption
52
Section 11.05.  Conversion Arrangement On Call For Redemption
52

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CONVERSION OF SECURITIES
 
 
Section 12.01.  Applicability of Article
53
Section 12.02.  Right of Securityholders to Convert Securities
53
Section 12.03.  Issuance of Shares of Capital Stock on Conversion
54
Section 12.04.  No Payment or Adjustment for Interest or Dividends
55
Section 12.05.  Adjustment of Conversion Rate
55
Section 12.06.  No Fractional Shares to Be Issued
59
Section 12.07.  Preservation of Conversion Rights Upon Consolidation, Merger, Sale or Conveyance
59
Section 12.08.  Notice to Security Holders of a Series Prior to Taking Certain Types of Action
60
Section 12.09.  Covenant to Reserve Shares for Issuance on Conversion of Securities
61
Section 12.10.  Compliance with Governmental Requirements
61
Section 12.11.  Payment of Taxes Upon Certificates for Shares Issued Upon Conversion
61
Section 12.12.  Trustee’s Duties with Respect to Conversion Provisions
62
 
 
SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES

 
 
Section 13.01.  Agreement Of Subordination
62
Section 13.02.  Payments to Holders
62
Section 13.03.  Subrogation Of Securities
64
Section 13.04.  Authorization By Holders
65
Section 13.05.  Notice to Trustee
65
Section 13.06.  Trustee’s Relation to Senior Indebtedness
66
Section 13.07.  No Impairment Of Subordination
66
Section 13.08.  Rights Of Trustee
66

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THIS INDENTURE, dated as of , between FORMFACTOR, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Issuer”) and ●, a ● corporation, as trustee (the “Trustee”).
W I T N E S S E T H:
WHEREAS, the Issuer has duly authorized the issue from time to time of its unsecured debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration thereof, the Issuer has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture; and
WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;
NOW, THEREFORE:
In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the Holders thereof, the Issuer and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective Holders from time to time of the Securities as follows:


    



Article 1
DEFINITIONS
Section 1.01.    Certain Terms Defined. The following terms (except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 or the definitions of which in the Securities Act of 1933 are referred to in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, including terms defined therein by reference to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of this Indenture. All accounting terms used herein and not expressly defined shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in accordance with GAAP. The words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision. The terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular.
Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” when used with respect to any specified Person means the power to direct the management and policies of such Person, directly or indirectly, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise; and the terms “controlling” and ”controlled” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.
Authorized Newspaper” means a newspaper in the English language or in an official language of the country of publication, customarily printed on each Business Day, whether or not published on Saturdays, Sundays or holidays, and of general circulation in the place in connection with which the term is used or in the financial community of such place. If, because of temporary suspension of publication or general circulation of any newspaper or for any other reason, it is impossible or impracticable to make any publication of any notice required by this Indenture in the manner herein provided, such publication or other notice in lieu thereof which is made at the written direction of the Issuer by the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient publication of such notice.
Board of Directors” means either the Board of Directors of the Issuer or any committee of such Board duly authorized to act hereunder.
Business Day” means, with respect to any Security, a day that in the city (or in all of the cities, if more than one) in which amounts are payable, as specified in the form of such Security, is not a day on which banking institutions are authorized by law or regulation to close.

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Capitalized Lease” means, as applied to any Person, any lease of any property (whether real, personal, or mixed) of which the discounted present value of the rental obligations of such Person as lessee, in conformity with GAAP, is required to be capitalized on the balance sheet of such Person; and “Capitalized Lease Obligation” is defined to mean the rental obligations, as aforesaid, under such lease.
Capital Stock” means any and all shares, interests, participations or other equivalents (however designated, whether voting or non-voting) of the Issuer’s capital stock or other ownership interests, whether now outstanding or issued after the date of this Indenture, including, without limitation, all Common Stock and Preferred Stock.
Closing Price” on any day when used with respect to any class of Capital Stock means the closing sale price per share (or if no closing sale price is reported, the average of the bid and ask prices or, if more than one in either case, the average of the average bid and the average ask prices) on that date as reported by The Nasdaq Global Select Market or, if such Capital Stock is not listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, then on the principal U.S. national or regional securities exchange on which such Capital Stock is then listed. If such Capital Stock is not listed on either The Nasdaq Global Select Market or on any U.S. national or regional securities exchange on the relevant date, the Closing Price will be the last quoted bid price for the Company’s Common Stock in the over-the-counter market on the relevant date as reported by the OTC Markets Group Inc. or similar organization. In the event that no such quotation is available for any day, the Board of Directors shall be entitled to determine in good faith the current market price on the basis of such quotations as it considers appropriate.
Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or if at any time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties on such date.
Common Stock” means any and all shares, interests, participations or other equivalents (however designated, whether voting or non-voting) of the Issuer’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, whether now outstanding or issued after the date of the Indenture, including, without limitation, all series and classes of such common stock.
Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be principally administered, which office is, at the date as of which this Indenture is dated, located at ●.
Currency Agreement” means any foreign exchange contract, currency swap agreement, or other similar agreement or arrangement designed to protect against the fluctuation in currency values.
Default” means any Event of Default as defined in Section 4.01 and any event that is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

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Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Registered Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.03 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Registered Global Securities of that series.
Determination Date” has the meaning specified in Section 12.05. “Event of Default” has the meaning specified in Section 4.01.
GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America as in effect as of the date of determination, including, without limitation, those set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession. All ratios and computations contained in this Indenture shall be computed in conformity with GAAP applied on a consistent basis.
Guarantee” means any obligation, contingent or otherwise, of any Person directly or indirectly guaranteeing any Indebtedness or other obligation of any other Person and, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, any obligation, direct or indirect, contingent or otherwise, of such Person:
(i)    to purchase or pay (or advance or supply funds for the purchase or payment of) such Indebtedness or other obligation of such other Person (whether arising by virtue of partnership arrangements, or by agreement to keep-well, to purchase assets, goods, securities, or services, to take-or-pay, or to maintain financial statement conditions or otherwise); or
(ii)    entered into for purposes of assuring in any other manner the obligee of such Indebtedness or other obligation of the payment thereof or to protect such obligee against loss in respect thereof (in whole or in part);
provided, that the term “Guarantee” shall not include endorsements for collection or deposit in the ordinary course of business. The term “Guarantee” used as a verb has a corresponding meaning.
Holder”, “Securityholder” or other similar terms mean the registered holder of any Security.
Indebtedness” means, with respect to any Person at any date of determination (without duplication):

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(i)    all indebtedness of such Person for borrowed money;
(ii)    all obligations of such Person evidenced by bonds, debentures, notes, or other similar instruments, in each case, for value received or settlement of claims;
(iii)    all obligations of such Person in respect of letters of credit or other similar instruments (including reimbursement obligations with respect thereto);
(iv)    all obligations of such Person to pay the deferred and unpaid purchase price of property or services (but excluding trade accounts payable or accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business);
(v)    all obligations of such Person as lessee under Capitalized Leases;
(vi)    all Indebtedness of other Persons secured by a Lien on any asset of such Person, whether or not such Indebtedness is assumed by such Person; provided that the amount of such Indebtedness shall be the lesser of:
(1)    the fair market value of such asset at such date of determination; and
(2)    the amount of such Indebtedness;
(vii)    all Indebtedness of other Persons to the extent Guaranteed by such Person; and
(viii)    to the extent not otherwise included in this definition, obligations under Currency Agreements and Interest Rate Agreements.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, in no event shall the term “Indebtedness” be deemed to include letters of credit or bonds that secure performance or surety bonds or similar instruments that are issued in the ordinary course of business.
The amount of Indebtedness of any Person at any date shall be the outstanding balance at such date of all unconditional obligations as described above and, with respect to contingent obligations, the maximum liability upon the occurrence of the contingency giving rise to the obligation; provided that:
(x)    the amount outstanding at any time of any Indebtedness issued with original issue discount is the face amount of such Indebtedness less the remaining unamortized portion of the original issue discount of such Indebtedness at such time as determined in conformity with GAAP; and
(y)    Indebtedness shall not include any liability for federal, state, local, or other taxes.

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Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and delivered or, if amended or supplemented as herein provided, as so amended or supplemented or both, and shall include the forms and terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.
Interest” means, when used with respect to non-interest bearing Securities, interest payable after maturity. ”Interest Rate Agreement” means any obligation of any Person pursuant to any interest rate swap, cap, collar or similar arrangement providing protection against fluctuations in interest rates. For purposes of the Indenture, the amount of such obligation shall be the amount determined in respect thereof as of the end of the then most recently ended fiscal quarter of such Person, based on the assumption that such obligation had terminated at the end of such fiscal quarter, and in making such determination, if any agreement relating to such obligation provides for the netting of amounts payable by and to such Person thereunder or if any such agreement provides for the simultaneous payment of amounts by and to such Person, then in each such case, the amount of such obligation shall be the net amount so determined, plus any premium due upon default by such Person.
Issuer” means the Person identified as “Issuer” in the first paragraph hereof and, subject to Article 8, its successors and assigns.
Lien” means, with respect to any asset, any mortgage, lien, pledge, charge, security interest or encumbrance of any kind, or any other type of preferential arrangement that has the practical effect of creating a security interest, in respect of such asset. For the purposes of this Indenture, the Issuer shall be deemed to own subject to a Lien any asset that it has acquired or holds subject to the interest of a vendor or lessor under any conditional sale agreement, capital lease or other title retention agreement relating to such asset.
Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the chairman of the Issuer’s Board of Directors, its president or any vice president, and by its treasurer, any assistant treasurer, its secretary or any assistant secretary of the Issuer, and delivered to the Trustee. Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and include the statements provided for in Section 10.05.
Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing signed by legal counsel who may be an employee of or counsel to the Issuer and who shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and include the statements provided for in Section 10.05, if and to the extent required hereby.
Original Issue Date” of any Security (or portion thereof) means the earlier of (i) the date of such Security or (ii) the date of any Security (or portion thereof) for which such Security was issued (directly or indirectly) on registration of transfer, exchange or substitution.

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Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the Principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 4.01.
Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities, shall, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, mean, as of any particular time, all Securities authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except:
(i)    Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;
(ii)    Securities, or portions thereof, for the payment or redemption of which monies in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Issuer) or shall have been set aside, segregated and held in trust by the Issuer for the Holders of such Securities (if the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent), provided that if such Securities, or portions thereof, are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as herein provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and
(iii)    Securities in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered, or which shall have been paid, pursuant to the terms of Section 2.09 (except with respect to any such Security as to which proof satisfactory to the Trustee is presented that such Security is held by a person in whose hands such Security is a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Issuer).
In determining whether the Holders of the requisite Principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the Principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the Principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 4.01.
Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof or any other entity.
Preferred Stock” means any and all shares, interests, participations or other equivalents (however designated, whether voting or non-voting) of the Issuer’s preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, whether now outstanding or issued after the date of the Indenture, including, without limitation, all series and classes of such preferred stock.

7
    



Principal” means, with respect to the Securities or any Security or any portion thereof, the principal amount of such Securities, Security or portion thereof, and shall be deemed to include “and premium, if any”.
record date” as used with respect to any interest payment date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest), has the meaning specified in Section 2.07.
Registered Global Security” means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Registered Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.04, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.04.
Registered Security” means any Security registered on the register maintained by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.08.
Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the corporate trust department of the Trustee, including any vice president, assistant vice president, assistant secretary, assistant treasurer, trust officer or any other officer of the Trustee who customarily performs functions similar to those performed by the Persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of such person’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.
Security” or “Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture, or, as the case may be, Securities that have been authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.
Senior Indebtedness” of the Issuer means (a) all Indebtedness of the Issuer, whether currently outstanding or hereafter issued, unless, by the terms of the instrument creating or evidencing such Indebtedness, it is provided that such Indebtedness is not superior in right of payment to the Securities, and (b) any modifications, refunding, deferrals, renewals or extensions of any such Indebtedness or securities, notes or other evidence of Indebtedness issued in exchange for such Indebtedness; provided that in no event shall “Senior Indebtedness” include (i) Indebtedness of the Issuer owed or owing to any Subsidiary of the Issuer or any officer, director or employee of the Issuer or any Subsidiary of the Issuer, (ii) Indebtedness to trade creditors or (iii) any liability for taxes owned or owing by the Issuer.
Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of all votes represented by all classes of outstanding Voting Stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person and one or more other Subsidiaries of such Person.
Trustee” means the Person identified as “Trustee” in the first paragraph hereof and, subject to the provisions of Article 5, shall also include any successor trustee.

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Trust Indenture Act of 1939” (except as otherwise provided in Sections 7.01 and 7.02) means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was originally executed.
UCC” means the Uniform Commercial Code, as in effect in each applicable jurisdiction. ”Unregistered Security” means any Security other than a Registered Security.
U.S. Government Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of an agency of instrumentality of the United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt; provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation or the specific payment of interest on or principal of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.
Voting Stock” means, with respect to any Person, capital stock of any class or kind ordinarily having the power to vote for the election of directors, managers or other voting members of the governing body of such Person.
vice president” when used with respect to the Issuer or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title of “vice president”.
Wholly-Owned” is defined to mean, with respect to any Subsidiary of any Person, such Subsidiary if all of the outstanding common stock or other similar equity ownership interests (but not including preferred stock) in such Subsidiary (other than any director’s qualifying shares or investments by foreign nationals mandated by applicable law) is owned directly or indirectly by such Person.
Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity on a series of securities, calculated at the time of issuance of such series, or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series, and calculated in accordance with accepted financial practice.
ARTICLE 2    
SECURITIES
Section 2.01.    Forms Generally. The Securities of each series shall be substantially in such form (not inconsistent with this Indenture) as shall be established by

9
    



or pursuant to a resolution of the Board of Directors or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have imprinted or otherwise reproduced thereon such legend or legends, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, as may be required to comply with any law or with any rules or regulations pursuant thereto, or with any rules of any securities exchange or to conform to general usage, all as may be determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution of the Securities. The Issuer shall furnish any such legends to the Trustee in writing.
The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.
Section 2.02.    Form of Trustee’s Certification of Authentication. The Trustee’s certificate of authentication on all Securities shall be in substantially the following form:
This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.
●,
as Trustee
By:
 
 
Authorized Signatory:

Section 2.03.    Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series. The aggregate Principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.
The Securities may be issued in one or more series. There shall be established in or pursuant to a resolution of the Board of Directors and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, prior to the issuance of Securities of any series:
(a)    the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);
(b)    any limit upon the aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 2.08, 2.09, 2.11 or Section 12.03);
(c)    the date or dates on which the Principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

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(d)    the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, or the method by which such rate shall be determined, the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest shall be payable and the record dates for the determination of Holders to whom interest is payable;
(e)    the place or places where the Principal of and any interest on Securities of the series shall be payable (if other than as provided in Section 3.02);
(f)    the price or prices at which, the period or periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Issuer;
(g)    the obligation, if any, of the Issuer to redeem, purchase or repay Securities of the series at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which, the period or periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
(h)    the obligation, if any, of the Issuer to permit the conversion of the Securities of such series into Capital Stock, and the terms and conditions upon which such conversion shall be effected (including, without limitation, the initial conversion price or rate, the conversion period and any other provision in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in this Indenture relative to such obligation);
(i)    if other than denominations of $1,000 and any multiple thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;
(j)    if other than the Principal amount thereof, the portion of the Principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 4.01 or provable in bankruptcy pursuant to Section 4.02;
(k)    if the Securities of the series are issuable in whole or in part as one or more Registered Global Securities, the identity of the Depositary for such Registered Global Security or Securities;
(l)    any other terms of the series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture);
(m)    any trustees, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrar or any other agents with respect to the Securities of such series; and
(n)    the extent to which payments on the Securities will be subordinated to the payment of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer.

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All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to such resolution of the Board of Directors or in any such indenture supplemental hereto.
Section 2.04.    Authentication and Delivery of Securities. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Issuer may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Issuer to the Trustee for authentication, and the Trustee shall thereupon authenticate and deliver such Securities to or upon the written order of the Issuer, such order to be signed by both (a) the chairman of its Board of Directors, its president or any vice president and by its treasurer, any assistant treasurer, its secretary or any assistant secretary, without any further action by the Issuer. In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities the Trustee shall receive, and (subject to Section 5.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon:
(a)    a certified copy of any resolution or resolutions of the Board of Directors authorizing the action taken pursuant to the resolution or resolutions delivered under clause (b) below;
(b)    a copy of any resolution or resolutions of the Board of Directors relating to such series, in each case certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer;
(c)    an executed supplemental indenture, if any, and the documentation required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7.04;
(d)    an Officers’ Certificate setting forth the form and terms of the Securities as required pursuant to Section 2.01 and 2.03, respectively and prepared in accordance with Section 10.05;
(e)    an Opinion of Counsel, prepared in accordance with Section 10.05, to the effect:
(i)    that the form or forms and terms of such Securities have been established by or pursuant to a resolution of the Board of Directors or by a supplemental indenture as permitted by Section 2.01 and 2.03 in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture; and
(ii)    that such Securities, when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Issuer in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Issuer enforceable against the Issuer in accordance with their terms, except to the extent that enforcement thereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium, fraudulent conveyance or similar laws now or hereafter in effect relating to creditors’ rights generally, and general principles of equity (regardless of whether enforceability is considered in a proceeding in equity or at law).

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The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities under this section if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken by the Issuer or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or board of trustees, executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees or Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability.
If the Issuer shall establish pursuant to Section 2.03 that the Securities of a series or a portion thereof are to be issued in the form of one or more Registered Global Securities, then the Issuer shall execute (in accordance with Section 2.05) and the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery one or more Registered Global Securities that (i) shall represent and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate Principal amount of all of the Securities of such series issued in such form and not yet canceled, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary for such Registered Global Security or Securities or the nominee of such Depositary, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to such Depositary or its custodian or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: ”Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, this Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to a nominee of the Depositary or by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such successor Depositary.”
Section 2.05.    Execution of Securities. The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Issuer by the chairman of its Board of Directors, its president, any vice president, its treasurer or any assistant treasurer, under its corporate seal and attested by its secretary or any assistant secretary. Such signatures may be the manual or facsimile signatures of the present or any future such officers. The seal of the Issuer may be in the form of a facsimile thereof and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Securities. Typographical and other minor errors or defects in any such reproduction of the seal or any such signature shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any Security that has been duly authenticated and delivered by the Trustee.
In case any officer of the Issuer who shall have signed any of the Securities shall cease to be such officer before the Security so signed shall be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee or disposed of by the Issuer, such Security nevertheless may be authenticated and delivered or disposed of as though the person who signed such Security had not ceased to be such officer of the Issuer; and any Security may be signed on behalf of the Issuer by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Security, shall be the proper officers of the Issuer, although at the date of the execution and delivery of this Indenture any such person was not such an officer.
Section 2.06.    Certificate of Authentication. Only such Securities as shall bear thereon a certificate of authentication substantially in the form hereinbefore recited, executed by the Trustee by the manual signature of one of its authorized signatories, shall

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be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose. Such certificate by the Trustee upon any Security executed by the Issuer shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.
Section 2.07.    Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest. The Securities shall be issuable as registered securities without coupons and in denominations as shall be specified as contemplated by Section 2.03. In the absence of any such specification with respect to the Securities of any series, the Securities of such series shall be issuable in denominations of $1,000 and any multiple thereof. The Securities shall be numbered, lettered, or otherwise distinguished in such manner or in accordance with such plan as the officers of the Issuer executing the same may determine as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof.
Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication, shall bear interest, if any, from the date and shall be payable on the dates, in each case, which shall be specified as contemplated by Section 2.03.
The person in whose name any Security of any series is registered at the close of business on any record date applicable to a particular series with respect to any interest payment date for such series shall be entitled to receive the interest, if any, payable on such interest payment date notwithstanding any transfer or exchange of such Security subsequent to the record date and prior to such interest payment date, except if and to the extent the Issuer shall default in the payment of the interest due on such interest payment date for such series, in which case such defaulted interest shall be paid to the persons in whose names Outstanding Securities for such series are registered at the close of business on a subsequent record date (which shall be not less than five Business Days prior to the date of payment of such defaulted interest) established by notice given by mail by or on behalf of the Issuer to the Holders of Securities not less than 15 days preceding such subsequent record date. The term “record date” as used with respect to any interest payment date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest) shall mean the date specified as such in the terms of the Securities of any particular series, or, if no such date is so specified, if such interest payment date is the first day of a calendar month, the fifteenth day of the next preceding calendar month or, if such interest payment date is the fifteenth day of a calendar month, the first day of such calendar month, whether or not such record date is a Business Day.
Section 2.08.    Registration, Transfer and Exchange. The Issuer will keep or cause to be kept at each office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02 a register or registers in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, it will register, and will register the transfer of, Securities as in this Article provided. Such register shall be in written form in the English language or in any other form capable of being converted into such form within a reasonable time. At all reasonable times such register or registers shall be open for inspection by the Trustee.

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At the option of the Holder thereof, Registered Securities of any series (other than a Registered Global Security, except as set forth below) may be exchanged for a Registered Security or Registered Securities of such series and tenor having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate Principal amount, upon surrender of such Registered Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. If the Securities of any series are issued in both registered and unregistered form, except as otherwise established pursuant to Section 2.03, at the option of the Holder thereof, Unregistered Securities of any series may be exchanged for Registered Securities of such series and tenor having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate Principal amount, upon surrender of such Unregistered Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. At the option of the Holder thereof, if Unregistered Securities of any series, maturity date, interest rate and Original Issue Date are issued in more than one authorized denomination, except as otherwise established pursuant to Section 2.03, such Unregistered Securities may be exchanged for Unregistered Securities of such series and tenor having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate Principal amount, upon surrender of such Unregistered Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. Registered Securities of any series may not be exchanged for Unregistered Securities of such series. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.
All Registered Securities presented for registration of transfer, exchange, redemption, conversion or payment shall be duly endorsed by, or be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer in form satisfactory to the Issuer and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder or his attorney duly authorized in writing.
The Issuer may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities. No service charge shall be made for any such transaction.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2.08, unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, a Registered Global Security representing all or a portion of the Securities of a series may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary for such series to a nominee of such Depositary or by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by such Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary for such series or a nominee of such successor Depositary.

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If at any time the Depositary for any Registered Global Securities of any series notifies the Issuer that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Registered Global Securities or if at any time the Depositary for such Registered Global Securities shall no longer be eligible under applicable law, the Issuer shall appoint a successor Depositary eligible under applicable law with respect to such Registered Global Securities. If a successor Depositary eligible under applicable law for such Registered Global Securities is not appointed by the Issuer within 90 days after the Issuer receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility, the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of the Issuer’s order for the authentication and delivery of definitive Registered Securities of such series and tenor, will authenticate and make available for delivery Registered Securities of such series and tenor, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate Principal amount equal to the Principal amount of such Registered Global Securities, in exchange for such Registered Global Securities.
The Issuer may at any time and in its sole discretion determine that any Registered Global Securities of any series shall no longer be maintained in global form. In such event, or in the event that there shall have occurred and be continuing an Event of Default with respect to a series of Securities, the Issuer will, upon the request of any Holder, execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of the Issuer’s order for the authentication and delivery of definitive Registered Securities of such series and tenor, will authenticate and make available for delivery, Registered Securities of such series and tenor in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate Principal amount equal to the Principal amount of such Registered Global Securities, in exchange for such Registered Global Securities.
Any time the Registered Securities of any series are not in the form of Registered Global Securities pursuant to the preceding two paragraphs, the Issuer agrees to supply the Trustee with a reasonable supply of certificated Registered Securities without the legend required by Section 2.04 and the Trustee agrees to hold such Registered Securities in safekeeping until authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.
If established by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.03 with respect to any Registered Global Security, the Depositary for such Registered Global Security may surrender such Registered Global Security in exchange in whole or in part for Registered Securities of the same series and tenor in definitive registered form on such terms as are acceptable to the Issuer and such Depositary. Thereupon, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, without service charge,
(i)    to the Person specified by such Depositary new Registered Securities of the same series and tenor, of any authorized denominations as requested by such Person, in an aggregate Principal amount equal to and in exchange for such Person’s beneficial interest in the Registered Global Security; and
(ii)    to such Depositary a new Registered Global Security in a denomination equal to the difference, if any, between the Principal amount of the

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surrendered Registered Global Security and the aggregate Principal amount of Registered Securities authenticated and delivered pursuant to clause (i) above.
Registered Securities issued in exchange for a Registered Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.08 shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary for such Registered Global Security, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee or an agent of the Issuer or the Trustee. The Trustee or such agent shall deliver such Securities to or as directed by the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.
All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Issuer, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.
Notwithstanding anything herein or in the forms or terms of any Securities to the contrary, none of the Issuer, the Trustee or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be required to exchange any Unregistered Security for a Registered Security if such exchange would result in adverse Federal income tax consequences to the Issuer (such as, for example, the inability of the Issuer to deduct from its income, as computed for Federal income tax purposes, the interest payable on the Unregistered Securities) under then applicable United States Federal income tax laws. The Trustee and any such agent shall be entitled to rely on an Officers’ Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel in determining such result.
Neither the Registrar nor the Issuer shall be required (i) to issue, authenticate, register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any series for a period of 15 days before the mailing of a notice of redemption of such Securities to be redeemed or (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Security selected for redemption in whole or in part.
Section 2.09.    Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or defaced and shall be surrendered to the Trustee, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated or defaced Security. If the Holder of any Security claims that the Security has been lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken Security, if the applicant so requests before the Issuer has notice that the Security has been acquired by a protected purchaser, and the applicant furnishes to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to indemnify and defend and to save each of them harmless and the applicant satisfies other reasonable requirements imposed by the Issuer.

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Upon the issuance of any substitute Security, the Issuer may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee and its counsel) connected therewith. In case any Security which has matured or is about to mature or has been called for redemption in full shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer may instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated or defaced Security), if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or taking, the applicant shall also furnish to the Issuer and the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or wrongful taking of such Security and of the ownership thereof.
Every substitute Security of any series issued pursuant to the provisions of this section by virtue of the fact that any such Security is destroyed, lost or stolen shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Issuer, whether or not the destroyed, lost or wrongfully taken Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone and shall be entitled to all the benefits of (but shall be subject to all the limitations of rights set forth in) this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of such series duly authenticated and delivered hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that, to the extent permitted by law, the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, defaced or destroyed, lost or wrongfully taken Securities and shall preclude any and all other rights or remedies.
Section 2.10.    Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof. All Securities surrendered for payment, redemption, repurchase, conversion, registration of transfer or exchange, if surrendered to the Issuer or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, shall be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be canceled by it; and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. The Trustee shall dispose of canceled Securities held by it in accordance with the record retention policies of the Trustee in effect from time to time and, if such canceled certificates are destroyed, shall deliver a certificate of destruction to the Issuer. If the Issuer shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.
Section 2.11.    Temporary Securities. Pending the preparation of definitive Securities for any series, the Issuer may execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver temporary Securities for such series (printed, lithographed, typewritten or otherwise reproduced, in each case in form satisfactory to the Trustee). Temporary Securities of any series shall be issuable as registered Securities without coupons, of any authorized denomination, and substantially in the form of the definitive Securities of such series but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for

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temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Issuer with the concurrence of the Trustee. Temporary Securities may contain such reference to any provisions of this Indenture as may be appropriate. Every temporary Security shall be executed by the Issuer and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities. Without unreasonable delay the Issuer shall execute and shall furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor without charge at each office or agency to be maintained by the Issuer for that purpose pursuant to Section 3.02, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities of such series a like aggregate Principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series of authorized denominations. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series.
Section 2.12.    Computation of Interest. Except as otherwise specified in the Securities of a series, interest shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.
Section 2.13.    CUSIP Numbers. The Issuer in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Issuer will notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.
ARTICLE 3    
COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE
Section 3.01.    Payment of Principal and Interest. The Issuer covenants and agrees for the benefit of each series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the Principal of, and interest on, each of the Securities of such series at the place or places, at the respective times and in the manner provided in such Securities. Each installment of interest on the Securities of any series may be paid by mailing checks for such interest payable to or upon the written order of the Holders of Securities entitled thereto as they shall appear on the registry books of the Issuer.
Notwithstanding any provisions of this Indenture and the Securities of any series to the contrary, if the Issuer and a Holder of any Registered Security so agree or if expressly provided pursuant to Section 2.03, payments of interest on, and any portion of the Principal of, such Holder’s Registered Security shall be made by the paying agent, upon receipt from the Issuer of immediately available funds by 11:00 a.m., New York City time (or such other time as may be agreed to between the Issuer and the paying agent) or the Issuer, directly to the Holder of such Security (by wire transfer of Federal

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funds or immediately available funds or otherwise) if the Holder has delivered written instructions to the Trustee 15 days prior to such payment date requesting that such payment will be so made and designating the bank account to which such payments shall be so made and, in the case of payments of Principal, surrenders the same to the Trustee. The Trustee shall be entitled to rely on the last instruction delivered by the Holder pursuant to this Section 3.01 unless a new instruction is delivered 15 days prior to a payment date. The Issuer will indemnify and hold each of the Trustee and any paying agent harmless against any loss, liability or expense (including attorneys’ fees and expenses) resulting from any act or omission to act on the part of the Issuer or any such Holder in connection with any such agreement or from making any payment in accordance with any such agreement.
Section 3.02.    Offices for Payments, etc. So long as any of the Securities remain outstanding, the Issuer will maintain in the Borough of Manhattan, The City of New York an office or agency (o) where the Securities may be presented for payment, (p) where the Securities may be presented for registration of transfer and for exchange as in this Indenture provided, (q) where notices and demands to or upon the Issuer in respect of the Securities or of this Indenture may be served and (r) for Securities of each series that is convertible, where such Securities may be presented for conversion. The Issuer will give to the Trustee written notice of the location of any such office or agency and of any change of location thereof. Unless otherwise specified in accordance with Section 2.03, the Issuer hereby initially designates the Corporate Trust Office of Trustee as the office to be maintained by it for each such purpose. In case the Issuer shall fail to so designate or maintain any such office or agency or shall fail to give such notice of the location or of any change in the location thereof, presentations and demands may be made and notices may be served at the Corporate Trust Office.
Section 3.03.    Paying Agents. Whenever the Issuer shall appoint a paying agent other than the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series, it will cause such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:
(f)    that it will hold all sums received by it as such agent for the payment of the Principal of or interest on the Securities of such series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Issuer or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series or of the Trustee;
(g)    that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Issuer (or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) to make any payment of the Principal of or interest on the Securities of such series when the same shall be due and payable; and during the continuance of the failure referred to in clause Section 3.03(b) above.
The Issuer will, on or prior to each due date of the Principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay such Principal or interest so becoming due, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

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If the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent with respect to the Securities of any Series, it will, on or before each due date of the Principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series a sum sufficient to pay such Principal or interest so becoming due. The Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.
Whenever the Issuer shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, on or before each due date of the Principal of or interest on any Securities of such series, deposit with the paying agent or agents for the Securities of such series a sum, by 11:00 a.m. New York City time in immediately available funds on the payment date, sufficient to pay the Principal or interest so becoming due with respect to the Securities of such series, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee in writing of any failure so to act.
Anything in this section to the contrary notwithstanding, the Issuer may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining a satisfaction and discharge with respect to one or more or all series of Securities hereunder, or for any other reason, pay or cause to be paid to the Trustee all sums held in trust for any such series by the Issuer or any paying agent hereunder, as required by this Section, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the trusts herein contained.
Anything in this Section 3.03 to the contrary notwithstanding, the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section 3.03 is subject to the provisions of Section 9.05.
Section 3.04.    Certificate of the Issuer. Within 120 days after the close of the fiscal year ended ●, and within 120 days after the close of each fiscal year thereafter, the Issuer will furnish to the Trustee a brief certificate (which need not comply with Section 10.05) from the principal executive, financial or accounting officer of the Issuer as to his or her knowledge of the Issuer’s compliance with all conditions and covenants under the Indenture (such compliance to be determined without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided under the Indenture).
At the time such certificate is filed, the Issuer will also file with the Trustee a letter or statement of the independent accountants who shall have certified the financial statements of the Issuer for its preceding fiscal year to the effect that, in making the examination necessary for certification of such financial statements, they have obtained no knowledge of any default by the Issuer in the performance or fulfillment of any covenant, agreement or condition contained in this Indenture, which default remains uncured at the date of such letter or statement, or, if they shall have obtained knowledge of any such uncured default, specifying in such letter or statement such default or defaults and the nature and status thereof, it being understood that such accountants shall not be liable directly or indirectly for failure to obtain knowledge of any such default or defaults, and that nothing contained in this Section 3.04 shall be construed to require such accountants to make any investigation beyond the scope required in connection with such examination.

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Section 3.05.    List of Securityholders. If and so long as the Trustee shall not be the Security registrar for the Securities of any series, the Issuer will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee a list in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of the Holders of the Securities of such series pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (a) semi-annually not more than 10 days after each record date for the payment of interest on such Securities, as hereinabove specified, as of such record date and on dates to be determined pursuant to Section 2.03 for non-interest bearing Securities in each year and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after receipt by the Issuer of any such request as of a date not more than 10 days prior to the time such information is furnished.
Section 3.06.    Reports by the Issuer. The Issuer covenants to:
(a)    file, whether or not required to do so under applicable law, with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Issuer files the same with the Commission:
(i)    copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents, and other reports which the Issuer files with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; and
(ii)    such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Issuer with the conditions and covenants provided for in this Indenture as the Issuer may from time to time file with the Commission; and
(b)    transmit to the Securityholders, in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 10.04, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed with the Trustee pursuant to the provisions of subdivision (a) of this Section 3.06 as may be required by the rules and regulations of the Commission.
Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Issuer’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers’ Certificates).
Section 3.07.    Corporate Existence. So long as any of the Securities remain unpaid, the Issuer will at all times (except as otherwise provided or permitted elsewhere in this Indenture) do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence.
Section 3.08.    Restrictions on Mergers, Sales and Consolidations. So long as any of the Securities remain unpaid, the Issuer will not consolidate or merge with or sell, convey or lease all or substantially all of its property to any other corporation except as permitted in Article 8 hereof.

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Section 3.09.    Further Assurances. From time to time whenever requested by the Trustee, the Issuer will execute and deliver such further instruments and assurances and do such further acts as may be reasonably necessary or proper to carry out more effectually the purposes of this Indenture or to secure the rights and remedies hereunder of the Holders of the Securities of any series.
ARTICLE 4    
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT
Section 4.01.    Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default. “Event of Default” with respect to Securities of any series wherever used herein, means any one of the following events which shall have occurred and be continuing (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body):
(s)    default by the Issuer in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days;
(t)    default by the Issuer in the payment of all or any part of the Principal on any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable either at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, and continuance of such default for a period of five days;
(u)    default by the Issuer in the performance, or breach by the Issuer, of any of its covenants or agreements in respect of the Securities of such series (other than a covenant or agreement in respect of the Securities of such series a default in whose performance or whose breach is elsewhere in this section specifically dealt with), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 30 consecutive days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Issuer by the Trustee or to the Issuer and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in Principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of all series affected thereby, a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a notice of default hereunder;
(v)    the entry by a court having jurisdiction in the premises of a decree or order for relief in respect of the Issuer in an involuntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or the appointment of a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for any substantial part of the Issuer’s property and assets or the ordering of the winding up or liquidation of the Issuer’s affairs, and the continuance of any such decree or order unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days;

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(w)    the commencement by the Issuer of a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or the consent by the Issuer to the entry of an order for relief in an involuntary case under any such law, or the consent by the Issuer to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for any substantial part of the Issuer’s property, or the making of any general assignment by the Issuer for the benefit of creditors; or
(x)    any other Event of Default provided in the supplemental indenture or resolution of the Board of Directors under which such series of Securities is issued or in the form of Security for such series.
If an Event of Default described in clauses 4.01(a), 4.01(b), 4.01(c) or 4.01(f) occurs and is continuing, then, and in each and every such case, unless the Principal of all of the Securities of such series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of any affected series then Outstanding hereunder (each such series voting as a separate class) by notice in writing to the Issuer (and to the Trustee if given by Securityholders), may declare the entire Principal (or, if the Securities of such series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the Principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) of all Securities of such series and the interest accrued thereon, if any, to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default described in clauses Section 4.01(d) or Section 4.01(e) occurs and is continuing, then the Principal amount of all the Securities then Outstanding and interest accrued thereon, if any, shall be and become immediately due and payable, without any notice or other action by any Holder or the Trustee, to the full extent permitted by applicable law.
The foregoing provisions, however, are subject to the condition that if, at any time after the Principal (or, if the Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the Principal as may be specified in the terms thereof) of the Securities of any series (or of all the Securities, as the case may be) shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the monies due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the Issuer shall pay or shall deposit with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of such series (or of all the Securities, as the case may be) and the Principal of any and all Securities of such series (or of all the Securities, as the case may be) which shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such Principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series (or at the respective rates of interest or Yields to Maturity of all the Securities, as the case may be) to the date of such payment or deposit) and such amount as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, its agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the

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Trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith, and if any and all Events of Default under the Indenture, other than the non-payment of the Principal of Securities which shall have become due by acceleration, shall have been cured, waived or otherwise remedied as provided herein, then and in every such case the Holders of a majority in aggregate Principal amount of all the then Outstanding Securities of all such series that have been accelerated, each such series voting as a separate class, by written notice to the Issuer and to the Trustee, may waive all defaults with respect to such series (or with respect to all the Securities, as the case may be) and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, but no such waiver or rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or shall impair any right consequent thereon.
For all purposes under this Indenture, if a portion of the Principal of any Original Issue Discount Securities shall have been accelerated and declared due and payable pursuant to the provisions hereof, then, from and after such declaration, unless such declaration has been rescinded and annulled, the Principal amount of such Original Issue Discount Securities shall be deemed, for all purposes hereunder, to be such Portion of the Principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, and payment of such portion of the Principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, together with interest, if any, thereon and all other amounts owing thereunder, shall constitute payment in full of such Original Issue Discount Securities.
Section 4.02.    Collection of Indebtedness by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt. The Issuer covenants that (h) in case default shall be made in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of any series when such interest shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 30 days or (i) in case default shall be made in the payment of all or any part of the Principal of any of the Securities of any series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of such series or upon any redemption or by declaration or otherwise, then in each case upon demand of the Trustee, the Issuer will pay to the Trustee for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series (x) the whole amount that then shall have become due and payable on all Securities of such series for Principal or interest, as the case may be (with interest to the date of such payment upon the overdue Principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series) and (y) in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee, their respective agents and counsel, and any expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee except as a result of its negligence or bad faith.
Until such demand is made by the Trustee, the Issuer may pay the Principal of and interest on the Securities of any series to the registered Holders, whether or not the Principal of and interest on the Securities of such series be overdue.

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In case the Issuer shall fail forthwith to pay such amounts upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceedings to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities and collect in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated, the monies adjudged or decreed to be payable.
In case there shall be pending proceedings relative to the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities under Title 11 of the United States Code or any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law, or in case a receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official shall have been appointed for or taken possession of the Issuer or its property or such other obligor, or in case of any other comparable judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor, the Trustee, irrespective of whether the Principal of any Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand pursuant to the provisions of this Section, shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceedings or otherwise:
(j)    to file and prove a claim or claims for the whole amount of Principal and interest (or, if the Securities of any series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the Principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities of any series, and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee, and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and for reimbursement of all expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee, except as a result of negligence or bad faith) and of the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor;
(k)    unless prohibited by applicable law and regulations, to vote on behalf of the Holders of the Securities of any series in any election of a trustee or a standby trustee in arrangement, reorganization, liquidation or other bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings or person performing similar functions in comparable proceedings; and
(l)    to collect and receive any monies or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute all amounts received with respect to the claims of the Securityholders and of the Trustee on their behalf; and any trustee, receiver, or liquidator, custodian or other similar official is hereby authorized by each of the Securityholders to make payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall

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